Gaylord / C-K Associates. 1996-97. Major, year long study (13
sampling events) of Cu and Zn in effluent and receiving water
(MDL's 0.087 and 0.14 ug/L= ppb, respectively by method 1638
ICP-MS). TERL is providing all clean sampling training, supplies
and analytical support. The data are being used to define the total
recoverable and dissolved Cu and Zn riverine signatures resulting
from the effluent discharge.
State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 1995-97. TERL is
providing state-of-the-art, ultra-clean chemistry services (both
sampling equipment and analysis) for a two year chemical translator
study being conducted by the Ohio EPA. The effort involves
quantitating total recoverable and dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb and other
metals in natural waters with the lowest possible detection limits
(0.007, 0.087, 0.14 ug/L, respectively).
City of Danville Virginia. 1994-1995. A large scale temporal
variability study (13 sampling events) conducted in cooperation
with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The total recoverable and
dissolved concentrations of 10 trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu,
Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were determined in waste water treatment plant
effluent, river water and field blanks. Side-by-side sample splits
were analyzed by 3 laboratories. TERL MDL's (all < 0.09 ppb)
were up to 10 times lower than the other two laboratories. TERL's
data was used to determine the final permit limits.
Receiving Water Monitoring Studies City of Panama City, FL.
1996-present. Clean metals study of total recoverable and dissolved
Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in WWTP effluent and receiving waters
(St. Andrews Bay). The study was conducted as part of the WWTP's
NPDES permit renewal to confirm reported elevated metal levels in
St. Andrews Bay. TERL conducted the first sampling event (July
1996) and trained local personnel to perform all subsequent clean
sampling episodes. TERL's clean metals data showed that the
previous data for the Bay were biased high. The true metal
concentrations were all <1 ppb, well below any applicable water
Houston Ship Channel Toxicity Study. 1993-present. Court
mandated study of contaminant levels. TERL personnel have collected
water column samples using clean sampling procedures and
comprehensive field QA. Preconcentration techniques, with complete
laboratory QA, are being used to measure 13 priority pollutant
metals at the sub-ppb level in both dissolved and particulate
fractions. TERL's results showed that dissolved trace metal
concentrations were much lower than previous thought with almost no
exceedances of State water quality standards.
Effluent Characterization Studies
Occidental Chemical Corporation. 1996. Clean metals study to
evaluate historically elevated and variable total recoverable
effluent Ni levels (i.e. up to 40 ppb) as part of the NPDES permit
renewal process. Twenty-four hour composite samples of both
influent and effluent were collected over a 5 day period using
clean techniques. TERL's clean Ni data showed that the previously
reported effluent Ni data were biased high and that actual Ni
levels were ~ 3 ppb.
City of Winnsboro, LA. 1996. Clean metals study to evaluate
historically elevated Cu levels (i.e. ~ 30 ppb) in the city's WWTP
effluent. The first sampling event (May 1996) was conducted by TERL
personnel during which city personnel were trained in clean metals
sampling. Both total recoverable and dissolved Cu measurements
showed that previous Cu data were biased high. The true effluent Cu
concentration were ~ 3 ppb.
Riverwood International / C-K Associates. 1995. TERL provided
on-site training of plant personnel and all precleaned equipment to
conduct this paper mill effluent study using clean sampling
protocols. More than 20 effluent samples were collected over a 3
day period using clean sampling protocols with comprehensive field
QA. Total recoverable (mean 5.5 ppb) and dissolved (mean 1.2 ppb)
copper (Cu) were determined by ICP/MS and confirmed by GFAAS.
U.S. Department of the Navy. 1993-present. TERL conducted a ship
discharge characterization study using clean chemistry
methodologies and is currently collaborating with the Navy on two
state-of-the-art ship discharge studies in the Norfolk area.
Clean Chemistry Guidance/ Methods Development U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. 1995-present. A TERL's principal scientist (Dr.
Boothe) has been an invited speaker at all but one EPA sponsored
Trace Metals Workshops (i.e. San Antonio, Chicago, Denver,
Burlington), and the last two Norfolk conferences (May 1995 and
1996). U.S. Department of the Navy. 1995. TERL (Dr. Boothe) has
been selected to prepare clean chemistry guidance documents for
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994-present. TERL is one
of few laboratories in the nation chosen to validate new EPA
methods (1636, 1637, 1638, 1639, 1640) for determining metals at
ambient water quality criteria levels (sub-ppb). Phase 2 of the
study involved validating the methods on natural water samples
collected by TERL in the field using clean sampling methods (EPA