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Analyze: Water

Gaylord / C-K Associates. 1996-97. Major, year long study (13 sampling events) of Cu and Zn in effluent and receiving water (MDL's 0.087 and 0.14 ug/L= ppb, respectively by method 1638 ICP-MS). TERL is providing all clean sampling training, supplies and analytical support. The data are being used to define the total recoverable and dissolved Cu and Zn riverine signatures resulting from the effluent discharge.

State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 1995-97. TERL is providing state-of-the-art, ultra-clean chemistry services (both sampling equipment and analysis) for a two year chemical translator study being conducted by the Ohio EPA. The effort involves quantitating total recoverable and dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb and other metals in natural waters with the lowest possible detection limits (0.007, 0.087, 0.14 ug/L, respectively).

City of Danville Virginia. 1994-1995. A large scale temporal variability study (13 sampling events) conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of 10 trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were determined in waste water treatment plant effluent, river water and field blanks. Side-by-side sample splits were analyzed by 3 laboratories. TERL MDL's (all < 0.09 ppb) were up to 10 times lower than the other two laboratories. TERL's data was used to determine the final permit limits.

Receiving Water Monitoring Studies City of Panama City, FL. 1996-present. Clean metals study of total recoverable and dissolved Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in WWTP effluent and receiving waters (St. Andrews Bay). The study was conducted as part of the WWTP's NPDES permit renewal to confirm reported elevated metal levels in St. Andrews Bay. TERL conducted the first sampling event (July 1996) and trained local personnel to perform all subsequent clean sampling episodes. TERL's clean metals data showed that the previous data for the Bay were biased high. The true metal concentrations were all <1 ppb, well below any applicable water quality criteria.

Houston Ship Channel Toxicity Study. 1993-present. Court mandated study of contaminant levels. TERL personnel have collected water column samples using clean sampling procedures and comprehensive field QA. Preconcentration techniques, with complete laboratory QA, are being used to measure 13 priority pollutant metals at the sub-ppb level in both dissolved and particulate fractions. TERL's results showed that dissolved trace metal concentrations were much lower than previous thought with almost no exceedances of State water quality standards.

Effluent Characterization Studies

Occidental Chemical Corporation. 1996. Clean metals study to evaluate historically elevated and variable total recoverable effluent Ni levels (i.e. up to 40 ppb) as part of the NPDES permit renewal process. Twenty-four hour composite samples of both influent and effluent were collected over a 5 day period using clean techniques. TERL's clean Ni data showed that the previously reported effluent Ni data were biased high and that actual Ni levels were ~ 3 ppb.

City of Winnsboro, LA. 1996. Clean metals study to evaluate historically elevated Cu levels (i.e. ~ 30 ppb) in the city's WWTP effluent. The first sampling event (May 1996) was conducted by TERL personnel during which city personnel were trained in clean metals sampling. Both total recoverable and dissolved Cu measurements showed that previous Cu data were biased high. The true effluent Cu concentration were ~ 3 ppb.

Riverwood International / C-K Associates. 1995. TERL provided on-site training of plant personnel and all precleaned equipment to conduct this paper mill effluent study using clean sampling protocols. More than 20 effluent samples were collected over a 3 day period using clean sampling protocols with comprehensive field QA. Total recoverable (mean 5.5 ppb) and dissolved (mean 1.2 ppb) copper (Cu) were determined by ICP/MS and confirmed by GFAAS.

U.S. Department of the Navy. 1993-present. TERL conducted a ship discharge characterization study using clean chemistry methodologies and is currently collaborating with the Navy on two state-of-the-art ship discharge studies in the Norfolk area.

Clean Chemistry Guidance/ Methods Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1995-present. A TERL's principal scientist (Dr. Boothe) has been an invited speaker at all but one EPA sponsored Trace Metals Workshops (i.e. San Antonio, Chicago, Denver, Burlington), and the last two Norfolk conferences (May 1995 and 1996). U.S. Department of the Navy. 1995. TERL (Dr. Boothe) has been selected to prepare clean chemistry guidance documents for Navy-wide distribution.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994-present. TERL is one of few laboratories in the nation chosen to validate new EPA methods (1636, 1637, 1638, 1639, 1640) for determining metals at ambient water quality criteria levels (sub-ppb). Phase 2 of the study involved validating the methods on natural water samples collected by TERL in the field using clean sampling methods (EPA 1669).