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Stephen Safe

Distinguished Professor

Curriculum Vitae

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Phone: (979) 845-5988

Mailstop: 4466

Department: VTPP

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Education

  • D.Phil. Bioorganic Chemistry, Oxford University, Great Britain 1965
  • M.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1963
  • B.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1962

Scholarly Interests

Toxicology and molecular biology of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds; molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptor and Ah receptor action and their crosstalk in breast cancer; NR4A1 and Sp proteins as drug targets; long non-coding RNAs

Publications

Unifying Mechanisms of Action of the Anticancer Activities of Triterpenoids and Synthetic Analogs.
Safe SH, Prather PL, Brents LK, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012 May;
A novel regulator of macrophage activation: miR-223 in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation.
Zhuang G, Meng C, Guo X, Cheruku PS, Shi L, Xu H, Li H, Wang G, Evans AR, Safe S, Wu C, Zhou B
Circulation. 2012 Jun; 125(23):2892-903.
Betulinic Acid Targets YY1 and ErbB2 through Cannabinoid Receptor-Dependent Disruption of MicroRNA-27a:ZBTB10 in Breast Cancer.
Liu X, Jutooru I, Lei P, Kim K, Lee SO, Brents LK, Prather PL, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Jul; 11(7):1421-31.
Celastrol decreases specificity proteins (Sp) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2012 Apr; 33(4):886-94.
Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells.
Pathi SS, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
Nutr Cancer. 2011 63(7):1133-42.
Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lei P, Pathi S, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2011 Aug; 11:371.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos E, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, Safe S, Parrish AR, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 May; 253(1):45-56.
MDM2 regulates estrogen receptor a and estrogen responsiveness in breast cancer cells.
Kim K, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Lee SO, Liu X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2011 46(2):67-79.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a: ZBTB10-specificity protein pathway.
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2011 Feb; 9(2):195-202.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce autophagic cell death in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2010 Dec; 10:669.
3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters.
Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2010 Sep; 117(1):1-3.
Inhibition of NFkappaB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Lei P, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2010 Aug; 285(33):25332-44.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate decreases specificity protein transcription factors and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth: role of microRNA-27a.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Abdelrahim M, Basha MR, Samudio I, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Aug; 78(2):226-36.
Arsenic trioxide downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and inhibits bladder cancer cell and tumor growth.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Lei P, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Exp Cell Res. 2010 Aug; 316(13):2174-88.
Drugs that target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2010 May; 8(5):739-50.
MicroRNA-27a Indirectly Regulates Estrogen Receptor {alpha} Expression and Hormone Responsiveness in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Li X, Mertens-Talcott SU, Zhang S, Kim K, Ball J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2010 Jun; 151(6):2462-73.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-bromophenyl)methane and related compounds repress survivin and decrease gamma-radiation-induced survivin in colon and pancreatic cancer cells.
Sreevalsan S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Walker M, Safe S
Int J Oncol. 2009 Nov; 35(5):1191-9.
Tolfenamic acid inhibits esophageal cancer through repression of specificity proteins and c-Met.
Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lee SO, Burghardt R, Abudayyeh A, Baker C, Herrera L, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2009 Jul; 30(7):1193-201.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines.
Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe S, Burghardt RC
J Toxicol Sci. 2009 Feb; 34(1):13-25.
Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2009 Aug; 48(8):692-702.
Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways.
Safe S, Kim K
J Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Nov; 41(5):263-75.
Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R 3rd, Li X, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2008 Jul; 68(13):5345-54.
Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3'-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs.
Safe S, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S
Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct; 269(2):326-38.
Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro.
Pacheco-Palencia LA, Talcott ST, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May; 56(10):3593-600.
Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Apr; 18(8):2633-9.
Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay.
Zhang S, Rowlands C, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Mar; 227(2):196-206.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R 3rd, Khan S, Safe S
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 May; 109(2):273-83.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter W, Metz R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Feb; 22(2):388-402.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18 beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Feb; 73(2):553-65.
Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Wu Q, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct; 39(4):289-304.
Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Aug; 223(1):28-38.
Coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)/Sp1 by vitamin D receptor interacting protein 150 (DRIP150).
Lee J, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 May; 461(2):200-10.
1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, and decrease the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb; 71(2):558-69.
The oncogenic microRNA-27a targets genes that regulate specificity protein transcription factors and the G2-M checkpoint in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Chintharlapalli S, Li X, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2007 Nov; 67(22):11001-11.
The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer.
Safe S, Papineni S
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Aug; 27(8):447-54.
Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes.
Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe S
Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 Oct; 20(7):1234-7.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 May; 5(5):1362-70.
Molecular mechanism of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor/Sp1 cross talk in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Liu S, Kim K, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Sep; 20(9):2199-214.
17beta-estradiol (E2) induces cdc25A gene expression in breast cancer cells by genomic and non-genomic pathways.
Ru Lee W, Chen CC, Liu S, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2006 Sep; 99(1):209-20.
Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells.
Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe S, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Lett. 2006 Aug; 165(2):133-41.
Activation of kinase pathways in MCF-7 cells by 17beta-estradiol and structurally diverse estrogenic compounds.
Li X, Zhang S, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Feb; 98(2-3):122-32.
Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and induction of cell death by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)methane (DIM) and 5,5'-dibromoDIM.
Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
Cancer Lett. 2006 May; 236(2):198-212.
Role of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-induced responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Li X, Burghardt R, Smith R 3rd, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Dec; 35(3):433-47.
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors decrease vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer cells by enhanced degradation of Sp1 and Sp4 proteins.
Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 68(2):317-29.
Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May; 16(4):139-44.
Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha-Sp1 interactions in breast cancer cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
Kim K, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Apr; 19(4):843-54.
DRIP150 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells is independent of LXXLL motifs.
Lee JE, Kim K, Sacchettini JC, Smith CV, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar; 280(10):8819-30.
Vitamin D-interacting protein 205 (DRIP205) coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) involves multiple domains of both proteins.
Wu Q, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec; 279(51):53602-12.
Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem.
Safe S
Toxicology. 2004 Dec; 205(1-2):3-10.
Egr-1 is activated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ELK-1.
Chen CC, Lee WR, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov; 93(5):1063-74.
Role of Sp proteins in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2004 Sep; 64(18):6740-9.
Estrogen-dependent regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer cells through activation of nongenomic cAMP-dependent pathways.
Qin C, Samudio I, Ngwenya S, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2004 Jul; 40(3):160-70.
Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation through interaction with Sp proteins.
Safe S, Kim K
Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2004 77:1-36.
Comparative in vitro and in vivo genotoxicities of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, manufactured gas plant residue (MGP), and MGP fractions.
Cizmas L, Zhou GD, Safe SH, McDonald TJ, Zhu L, Donnelly KC
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004 43(3):159-68.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth and hormone-induced transactivation.
Morrow D, Qin C, Smith R 3rd, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Jan; 88(1):27-36.
Estrogen regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells through interaction of estrogen receptor alpha and SP proteins.
Stoner M, Wormke M, Saville B, Samudio I, Qin C, Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Oncogene. 2004 Feb; 23(5):1052-63.
Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor alpha cross-talk and mechanisms of action.
Safe S, Wormke M
Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 Jul; 16(7):807-16.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene silencing with small inhibitory RNA differentially modulates Ah-responsiveness in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun; 63(6):1373-81.
Estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes are required for induction of cad gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2003 Jun; 144(6):2325-35.
17 beta-estradiol- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced transactivation in breast, endometrial and liver cancer cells is dependent on ER-subtype, cell and promoter context.
Castro-Rivera E, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jan; 84(1):23-31.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists induce proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Qin C, Burghardt R, Smith R, Wormke M, Stewart J, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2003 Mar; 63(5):958-64.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes.
Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Mar; 23(6):1843-55.
Domains of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) required for ERalpha/Sp1-mediated activation of GC-rich promoters by estrogens and antiestrogens in breast cancer cells.
Kim K, Thu N, Saville B, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2003 May; 17(5):804-17.
Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context.
Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Dec; 111(16):1877-82.
Small inhibitory RNA duplexes for Sp1 mRNA block basal and estrogen-induced gene expression and cell cycle progression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug; 277(32):28815-22.
Estrogen regulation of c-fos gene expression through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent activation of serum response factor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Duan R, Xie W, Li X, McDougal A, Safe S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jun; 294(2):384-94.
Mechanism of action and development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of hormone-dependent cancers (Review).
Safe S, McDougal A
Int J Oncol. 2002 Jun; 20(6):1123-8.
Doxycycline induces expression of P glycoprotein in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.
Mealey KL, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Kochevar DT
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Mar; 46(3):755-61.
Estrogen regulation of transferrin gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Vyhlidal C, Li X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Dec; 29(3):305-17.
Hypoxia induces proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells.
Stoner M, Saville B, Wormke M, Dean D, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct; 16(10):2231-42.
Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug; 68(2):444-50.
Estrogen up-regulation of p53 gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mediated by calmodulin kinase IV-dependent activation of a nuclear factor kappaB/CCAAT-binding transcription factor-1 complex.
Qin C, Nguyen T, Stewart J, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Aug; 16(8):1793-809.
Environmental estrogens: roles in male reproductive tract problems and in breast cancer.
Safe S
Rev Environ Health. 2002 Oct; 17(4):253-62.
Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, McDonnell D
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Dec; 110 Suppl 6:925-9.
Estrogen regulation of cyclin D1 gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells involves multiple enhancer elements.
Castro-Rivera E, Samudio I, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug; 276(33):30853-61.
Tamoxifen-induced antitumorigenic/antiestrogenic action synergized by a selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator.
McDougal A, Wormke M, Calvin J, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2001 May; 61(10):3902-7.
Activation of adenosine deaminase in MCF-7 cells through IGF-estrogen receptor alpha crosstalk.
Xie W, Duan R, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Jun; 26(3):217-28.
Transcriptional activation of genes by 17 beta-estradiol through estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions.
Safe S
Vitam Horm. 2001 62:231-52.
Molecular biology of the Ah receptor and its role in carcinogenesis.
Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 2001 Mar; 120(1-3):1-7.
Association of ARNT splice variants with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, poor induction of vascular endothelial growth factor under hypoxia, and poor prognosis.
Qin C, Wilson C, Blancher C, Taylor M, Safe S, Harris AL
Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr; 7(4):818-23.
Transcriptional activation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha gene expression in MCF-7 cells by 17 beta-estradiol.
Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Stoner M, Chen I, Kladde M, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2001 Mar; 142(3):1000-8.
Identification of estrogen-induced genes downregulated by AhR agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using suppression subtractive hybridization.
Chen I, Hsieh T, Thomas T, Safe S
Gene. 2001 Jan; 262(1-2):207-14.
Transcriptional activation of heat shock protein 27 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol and modulation by antiestrogens and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.
Porter W, Wang F, Duan R, Qin C, Castro-Rivera E, Kim K, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Feb; 26(1):31-42.
Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition.
Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Feb; 172(1-2):91-103.
Estrogen receptor-mediated activation of the serum response element in MCF-7 cells through MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Elk-1.
Duan R, Xie W, Burghardt RC, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr; 276(15):11590-8.
Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine endometrial epithelial cells.
Stewart MD, Johnson GA, Vyhlidal CA, Burghardt RC, Safe SH, Yu-Lee LY, Bazer FW, Spencer TE
Endocrinology. 2001 Jan; 142(1):98-107.
Toxicology of environmental estrogens.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnellc D
Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001 13(4):307-15.
Transcriptional activation of rat creatine kinase B by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells involves an estrogen responsive element and GC-rich sites.
Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2001 84(1):156-72.
Involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism in the inhibition of CYP1A1 expression by resveratrol in breast cancer cells.
Lee JE, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Oct; 62(8):1113-24.
Differential activation of wild-type and variant forms of estrogen receptor alpha by synthetic and natural estrogenic compounds using a promoter containing three estrogen-responsive elements.
Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Stoner M, Gaido K, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Jul; 78(1):25-32.
Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats.
McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001 Mar; 66(2):147-57.
3',4'-dimethoxyflavone as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist in human breast cancer cells.
Lee JE, Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2000 Dec; 58(2):235-42.
Bisphenol A and related endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2000 Aug; 56(2):251-2.
Transcriptional activation of thymidylate synthase by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Xie W, Duan R, Chen I, Samudio I, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2000 Jul; 141(7):2439-49.
Endocrine disruptors and human health--is there a problem? An update.
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jun; 108(6):487-93.
Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines.
Yoon K, Pellaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000 Apr; 162(1-2):211-20.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and crosstalk in human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells.
Wormke M, Castro-Rivera E, Chen I, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 Apr; 72(5):197-207.
Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HEC1A endometrial cancer cells through interactions of estrogen receptor alpha and Sp3 proteins.
Stoner M, Wang F, Wormke M, Nguyen T, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Marme D, Finkenzeller G, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul; 275(30):22769-79.
Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by growth factors.
Wang F, Duan R, Chirgwin J, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Apr; 24(2):193-202.
Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane.
McDougal A, Sethi Gupta M, Ramamoorthy K, Sun G, Safe SH
Cancer Lett. 2000 Apr; 151(2):169-79.
Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2000 Feb; 53(2):264-70.
Ligand-, cell-, and estrogen receptor subtype (alpha/beta)-dependent activation at GC-rich (Sp1) promoter elements.
Saville B, Wormke M, Wang F, Nguyen T, Enmark E, Kuiper G, Gustafsson JA, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb; 275(8):5379-87.
Mechanisms of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor crosstalk in human breast cancer cells.
Safe S, Wormke M, Samudio I
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2000 Jul; 5(3):295-306.
Symposium on mechanisms of action of naturally occurring anticarcinogens.
Safe S, Wargovich MJ, Lamartiniere CA, Mukhtar H
Toxicol Sci. 1999 Nov; 52(1):1-8.
Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells.
Dong L, Wang W, Wang F, Stoner M, Reed JC, Harigai M, Samudio I, Kladde MP, Vyhlidal C, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov; 274(45):32099-107.
Transcriptional activation of c-fos protooncogene by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition.
Duan R, Porter W, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Kladde M, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Sep; 13(9):1511-21.
Regulation of constitutive gene expression through interactions of Sp1 protein with the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex.
Wang F, Wang W, Safe S
Biochemistry. 1999 Aug; 38(35):11490-500.
Development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of breast cancer.
Safe S, Qin C, McDougal A
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1999 Sep; 8(9):1385-96.
3,3'4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl exhibits antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity in the rodent uterus and mammary cells and in human breast cancer cells.
Ramamoorthy K, Gupta MS, Sun G, McDougal A, Safe SH
Carcinogenesis. 1999 Jan; 20(1):115-23.
Estrogen induces adenosine deaminase gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions.
Xie W, Duan R, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1999 Jan; 140(1):219-27.
Transcriptional activation of E2F1 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells is regulated by NF-Y-Sp1/estrogen receptor interactions.
Wang W, Dong L, Saville B, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Aug; 13(8):1373-87.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness of ECC-1 endometrial cancer cells.
Castro-Rivera E, Wormke M, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 Apr; 150(1-2):11-21.
Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes.
Qin C, Singh P, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1999 Jun; 140(6):2501-8.
Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 16alpha- and 2-hydroxy metabolites of 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells.
Gupta M, McDougal A, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Dec; 67(5-6):413-9.
Methods for xenoestrogen testing.
Safe S, Connor K, Gaido K
Toxicol Lett. 1998 Dec; 102-103:665-70.
Ah receptor agonists as endocrine disruptors: antiestrogenic activity and mechanisms.
Safe S, Wang F, Porter W, Duan R, McDougal A
Toxicol Lett. 1998 Dec; 102-103:343-7.
Mechanisms of ligand-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated biochemical and toxic responses.
Wilson CL, Safe S
Toxicol Pathol. 1998 Sep; 26(5):657-71.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane.
Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1998 Sep; 19(9):1631-9.
Estrogen-induced retinoic acid receptor alpha 1 gene expression: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complex.
Sun G, Porter W, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1998 Jun; 12(6):882-90.
Estrogen- and antiestrogen-responsiveness of HEC1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in culture.
Castro-Rivera E, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Mar; 64(5-6):287-95.
Functional and physical interactions between the estrogen receptor Sp1 and nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes.
Wang F, Hoivik D, Pollenz R, Safe S
Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Jun; 26(12):3044-52.
Interactions between hormones and chemicals in breast cancer.
Safe SH
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998 38:121-58.
Inhibition of CYP1A1-dependent activity by the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene.
Willett KL, Randerath K, Zhou GD, Safe SH
Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Mar; 55(6):831-9.
Hazard and risk assessment of chemical mixtures using the toxic equivalency factor approach.
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Aug; 106 Suppl 4:1051-8.
Altered phenotypic characteristics of T47d human breast cancer cells after prolonged growth in estrogen-deficient medium.
Fernandez P, Wilson C, Hoivik D, Safe SH
Cell Biol Int. 1998 22(9-10):623-33.
Ah receptor-independent induction of CYP1A2 gene expression in genetically inbred mice.
Gupta M, Miggens J, Parrish A, Womack J, Ramos KS, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein LS, Holtzapple C, Stanker L, Safe SH
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998 May; 5(3):205-13.
Estrogen-induced c-fos protooncogene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor Sp1 complex formation.
Duan R, Porter W, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1998 Apr; 139(4):1981-90.
Induction of 16alpha-/2-hydroxyestrone metabolite ratios in MCF-7 cells by pesticides, carcinogens, and antiestrogens does not predict mammary carcinogens.
McDougal A, Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Apr; 106(4):203-6.
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons suppress CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices.
Hong SJ, Grover CA, Safe SH, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Frye GD
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Jan; 148(1):7-13.
Development validation and problems with the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of dioxins and related compounds.
Safe SH
J Anim Sci. 1998 Jan; 76(1):134-41.
17 beta-Estradiol-mediated growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with the estrogen receptor: cell cycle effects.
Wang W, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe SH
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997 Sep; 133(1):49-62.
Additive estrogenic activities of a binary mixture of 2',4',6'-trichloro- and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol.
Ramamoorthy K, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Chen I, Safe S, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Nov; 147(1):93-100.
Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor.
Porter W, Saville B, Hoivik D, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Oct; 11(11):1569-80.
Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) nonresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells is associated with expression of a variant arnt protein.
Wilson CL, Thomsen J, Hoivik DJ, Wormke MT, Stanker L, Holtzapple C, Safe SH
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Oct; 346(1):65-73.
Human exposure to endocrine-active chemicals: hazard assessment problems.
Safe S, Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Maness S
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1997 Aug; 26(1 Pt 1):52-8.
Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships.
Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Jul; 145(1):111-23.
Identification of a functional imperfect estrogen-responsive element in the 5'-promoter region of the human cathepsin D gene.
Wang F, Porter W, Xing W, Archer TK, Safe S
Biochemistry. 1997 Jun; 36(25):7793-801.
Characterization of the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for evaluation of environmental samples containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Willett KL, Gardinali PR, Sericano JL, Wade TL, Safe SH
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1997 May; 32(4):442-8.
Mechanism of inhibition of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell growth by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Wang WL, Porter W, Burghardt R, Safe SH
Carcinogenesis. 1997 May; 18(5):925-33.
Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Apr; 105 Suppl 3:675-8.
Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism.
Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1997 Apr; 138(4):1520-7.
Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl.
Zhao F, Mayura K, Harper N, Safe SH, Phillips TD
Chemosphere. 1997 Mar; 34(5-7):1605-13.
Inhibition of estrogen-induced activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the MCF-7 human breast cancer and other cell lines transfected with vitellogenin A2 gene promoter constructs.
Nodland KI, Wormke M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Feb; 338(1):67-72.
Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of TCDD and related compounds.
Safe S
Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1997 199; 17(4-5):285-304.
Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.
Safe SH, Zacharewski T
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1997 396:133-45.
Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl.
Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 Jan; 35(1):1-8.
Antiestrogenic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners identified in human serum.
Moore M, Mustain M, Daniel K, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Jan; 142(1):160-8.
Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor growth by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.
McDougal A, Wilson C, Safe S
Cancer Lett. 1997 Nov; 120(1):53-63.
Role of estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes in estrogen-induced heat shock protein 27 gene expression.
Porter W, Wang F, Wang W, Duan R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1996 Nov; 10(11):1371-8.
Effects of developmental exposure to indole-3-carbinol or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on reproductive potential of male rat offspring.
Wilker C, Johnson L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Nov; 141(1):68-75.
Atypical cytochrome P450 induction profiles in glomerular mesangial cells at the mRNA and enzyme level. Evidence for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and their involvement in benzo[a]pyrene metabolism.
Bowes RC 3rd, Parrish AR, Steinberg MA, Willett KL, Zhao W, Savas U, Jefcoate CR, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Aug; 52(4):587-95.
Inhibition of prolactin receptor gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu YF, Sun G, Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 Aug; 332(1):35-40.
Stimulation of calcium uptake in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Hanneman WH, Legare ME, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Tiffany-Castiglioni E
Toxicology. 1996 Aug; 112(1):19-28.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on insulin-induced responses in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Liu H, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Jun; 138(2):242-50.
Substituted flavones as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists.
Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Apr; 51(8):1077-87.
Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells.
Chen I, Safe S, Bjeldanes L
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Apr; 51(8):1069-76.
Failure of chloro-S-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogen receptor-mediated responses in vivo and in vitro.
Connor K, Howell J, Chen I, Liu H, Berhane K, Sciarretta C, Safe S, Zacharewski T
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996 Mar; 30(1):93-101.
Effect of transient expression of the oestrogen receptor on constitutive and inducible CYP1A1 in Hs578T human breast cancer cells.
Wang WL, Thomsen JS, Porter W, Moore M, Safe S
Br J Cancer. 1996 Feb; 73(3):316-22.
Alkyl polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds as antiestrogens in the female rat uterus: structure-activity studies.
Dickerson R, Keller LH, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 Dec; 135(2):287-98.
Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells.
Krishnan V, Porter W, Santostefano M, Wang X, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Dec; 15(12):6710-9.
Structure-dependent induction of CYP2B by polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Connor K, Safe S, Jefcoate CR, Larsen M
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Nov; 50(11):1913-20.
Comparative properties of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex from several human cell lines.
Wang X, Thomsen JS, Santostefano M, Rosengren R, Safe S, Perdew GH
Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Oct; 293(3):191-205.
Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum.
Safe S, Washburn K, Zacharewski T, Phillips T
Chemosphere. 1995 Aug; 31(4):3017-23.
Environmental and dietary estrogens and human health: is there a problem?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Apr; 103(4):346-51.
Identification of 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone as a pure aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor antagonist and evidence for more than one form of the nuclear Ah receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Jan; 316(1):470-7.
Human chorionic gonadotropin protects Leydig cell function against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in adult rats: role of Leydig cell cytoplasmic volume.
Wilker CE, Welsh TH Jr, Safe SH, Narasimhan TR, Johnson L
Toxicology. 1995 Jan; 95(1-3):93-102.
Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole: a dietary-derived factor that exhibits both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity.
Liu H, Wormke M, Safe SH, Bjeldanes LF
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Dec; 86(23):1758-65.
Development of an in vitro model for investigating the formation of the nuclear Ah receptor complex in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells.
Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 Dec; 315(2):285-92.
Relative sensitivities of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced Cyp1a-1 and Cyp1a-2 gene expression and immunotoxicity in female B6C3F1 mice.
Narasimhan TR, Craig A, Arellano L, Harper N, Howie L, Menache M, Birnbaum L, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994 Nov; 23(4):598-607.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for antibodies to TNP-LPS detects alterations in serum immunoglobulins and isotype switching in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Harper N, Connor K, Steinberg M, Safe S
Toxicology. 1994 Sep; 92(1-3):155-67.
2-Phenylphenanthridinone and related compounds: aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists and suicide inactivators of P4501A1.
Liu H, Santostefano M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 Sep; 313(2):206-14.
Inhibition of estrogen-induced progesterone receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists.
Harper N, Wang X, Liu H, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994 Aug; 104(1):47-55.
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and retinoic acid in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu Y, Wang X, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994 Jul; 127(1):1-8.
Effect of ligand structure on formation and DNA binding properties of the transformed rat cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Santosfefano M, Liu H, Wang X, Chaloupka K, Safe S
Chem Res Toxicol. 1994 Jul; 7(4):544-50.
Estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes mediate estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Krishnan V, Wang X, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun; 269(22):15912-7.
Biphasic modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in serum-deprived rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
Weber TJ, Ou X, Merchant M, Wang X, Safe SH, Ramos KS
J Biochem Toxicol. 1994 Jun; 9(3):113-20.
Restoration of aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) responsiveness in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by transient expression of the estrogen receptor.
Thomsen JS, Wang X, Hines RN, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1994 May; 15(5):933-7.
Benzo[a]pyrene-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A unique aryl hydrocarbon-nonresponsive clone.
Moore M, Wang X, Lu YF, Wormke M, Craig A, Gerlach JH, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr; 269(16):11751-9.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduces the number, size, and organelle content of Leydig cells in adult rat testes.
Johnson L, Wilker CE, Safe SH, Scott B, Dean DD, White PH
Toxicology. 1994 Mar; 89(1):49-65.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment.
Safe SH
Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994 24(2):87-149.
Immunosuppressive effects of highly chlorinated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers on T-cell dependent and independent antigens in mice.
Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Dickerson R, Safe S
Toxicology. 1993 Dec; 85(2-3):123-35.
Synergistic activity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists.
Chaloupka K, Harper N, Krishnan V, Santostefano M, Rodriguez LV, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1993 Dec; 89(2-3):141-58.
Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated decrease of the nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Wang X, Porter W, Krishnan V, Narasimhan TR, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993 Oct; 96(1-2):159-66.
6-substituted 3,4-benzocoumarins: a new structural class of inducers and inhibitors of CYP1A1-dependent activity.
Liu H, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Oct; 306(1):223-31.
Development of bioassays and approaches for the risk assessment of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Oct; 101 Suppl 3:317-25.
Potentiation of CYP1A1 gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells cotreated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.
Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Steinberg MA, Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Sep; 305(2):483-8.
Immunotoxic potencies of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.
Harper N, Connor K, Safe S
Toxicology. 1993 Jun; 80(2-3):217-27.
Mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an Ah receptor antagonist in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Merchant M, Krishnan V, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 Jun; 120(2):179-85.
Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of highly chlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.
Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Arellano L, Craig A, Dickerson R, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 May; 20(4):496-502.
Comparative potencies of Aroclors 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in male Wistar rats--assessment of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 May; 20(4):456-63.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Krishnan V, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 May; 120(1):55-61.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Rowlands C, Krishnan V, Wang X, Santostefano M, Safe S, Miller WR, Langdon S
Cancer Res. 1993 Apr; 53(8):1802-7.
Toxicology, structure-function relationship, and human and environmental health impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls: progress and problems.
Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Apr; 100:259-68.
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 17 beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Wang X, Krishnan V, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 Mar; 44(3):251-61.
Effects of cycloheximide on the induction of CYP1A1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three human breast cancer cell lines.
Arellano LO, Wang X, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1993 Feb; 14(2):219-22.
alpha-Naphthoflavone-induced CYP1A1 gene expression and cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor transformation.
Santostefano M, Merchant M, Arellano L, Morrison V, Denison MS, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Feb; 43(2):200-6.
Teratogenicity and immunotoxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in C57BL/6 mice.
Mayura K, Spainhour CB, Howie L, Safe S, Phillips TD
Toxicology. 1993 Jan; 77(1-2):123-31.
Modulation of protooncogene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by benzo[a]pyrene.
Sadhu DN, Merchant M, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Jan; 300(1):124-31.
Reduced Leydig cell volume and function in adult rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin without a significant effect on spermatogenesis.
Johnson L, Dickerson R, Safe SH, Nyberg CL, Lewis RP, Welsh TH Jr
Toxicology. 1992 Nov; 76(2):103-18.
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of the Ah receptor.
Chaloupka K, Krishnan V, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1992 Dec; 13(12):2233-9.
A comparison of the mouse versus human aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex: effects of proteolysis.
Wang X, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1992 Nov; 85(1):79-93.
Mechanism of action of aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists: inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression.
Merchant M, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Nov; 298(2):389-94.
Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I responses in MCF-7 cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Liu H, Biegel L, Narasimhan TR, Rowlands C, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 Sep; 87(1-3):19-28.
Gap junctions in myometrial cell cultures: evidence for modulation by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate.
Dookwah HD, Barhoumi R, Narasimhan TR, Safe SH, Burghardt RC
Biol Reprod. 1992 Sep; 47(3):397-407.
The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran in chick embryo hepatocytes.
Yao C, Safe S
Toxicol In Vitro. 1992 Jul; 6(4):373-80.
Development of gel staining techniques for detecting the secretion of procathepsin D (52-kDa protein) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Krishnan V, Narasimhan T, Safe S
Anal Biochem. 1992 Jul; 204(1):137-42.
Growth inhibitory and antimitogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in T47D human breast cancer cells.
Fernandez P, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1992 Jul; 61(2-3):185-97.
Kinetics of the association of several tritiated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners with hepatic cytosolic Ah receptor from the Wistar rat.
Rosengren R, Safe S, Bunce NJ
Chem Res Toxicol. 1992 May; 5(3):376-82.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the human C-4II cervical squamous carcinoma cell line.
Wang X, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr; 43(7):1635-42.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as an antiestrogen in human and rodent cancer cell lines: evidence for the role of the Ah receptor.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Biegel L, Morrison V, Merchant M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 Apr; 113(2):311-8.
The effect of 6-nitro-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a partial estrogen in the female rat uterus.
Dickerson R, Howie L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 Mar; 113(1):55-63.
Mechanism of benzo[a]pyrene-induced Cyp1a-1 gene expression in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells: role of the nuclear 6 s and 4 s proteins.
Merchant M, Wang X, Kamps C, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Jan; 292(1):250-7.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds as antioestrogens: characterization and mechanism of action.
Safe S, Astroff B, Harris M, Zacharewski T, Dickerson R, Romkes M, Biegel L
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991 Dec; 69(6):400-9.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on 17 beta-estradiol-induced glucose metabolism in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.
Narasimhan TR, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI
Mol Pharmacol. 1991 Dec; 40(6):1029-35.
DNA binding properties of the Ah receptor in wild-type and variant mouse hepatoma cells.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Morrison V, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Nov; 290(2):362-8.
Evidence for the mechanism of action of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated decrease of nuclear estrogen receptor levels in wild-type and mutant mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 41(12):1931-9.
In situ and in vitro photoaffinity labeling of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor from transformed rodent and human cell lines.
Wang X, Narasimhan TR, Morrison V, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 May; 287(1):186-94.
Inhibition of the 17 beta-estradiol-induced and constitutive expression of the cellular protooncogene c-fos by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the female rat uterus.
Astroff B, Eldridge B, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1991 May; 56(3):305-15.
Neonatal exposure to Aroclor 1254: effects on adult hepatic testosterone hydroxylase activities.
Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH
Xenobiotica. 1991 Apr; 21(4):481-9.
6-Alkyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as antiestrogens in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1991 69(2):187-97.
Mechanism of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists: characterization of 6-[125I]methyl-8-iodo-1,3-dichlorodibenzofuran-Ah receptor complexes.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Astroff B, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe L, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Jan; 284(1):193-200.
Effects of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls on mouse liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimhan TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
J Biochem Toxicol. 1991 Fal; 6(3):229-36.
Development and validation of bioassays for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
Safe S, Harris M, Zacharewski T
IARC Sci Publ. 1991 (108):147-59.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on cell growth and the secretion of the estrogen-induced 34-, 52- and 160-kDa proteins in human breast cancer cells.
Biegel L, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 Dec; 37(5):725-32.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibition of 17 beta-estradiol-induced increases in rat uterine epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity and gene expression.
Astroff B, Rowlands C, Dickerson R, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990 Sep; 72(3):247-52.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related congeners: mechanistic studies.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Rosengren R, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Sep; 105(2):243-53.
Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of polychlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6N mice: quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Howie L, Dickerson R, Davis D, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Sep; 105(2):254-63.
The mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an inhibitor of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression.
Merchant M, Arellano L, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990 Aug; 281(1):84-9.
The structure-dependent effects of heptachlorodibenzofuran isomers in male C57BL/6 mice: immunotoxicity and monooxygenase enzyme induction.
Dickerson R, Howie L, Davis D, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1990 Aug; 15(2):298-307.
Immunosuppressive activities of polychlorinated biphenyls in C57BL/6N mice: structure-activity relationships as Ah receptor agonists and partial antagonists.
Davis D, Safe S
Toxicology. 1990 Jul; 63(1):97-111.
Effects of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inducers on mouse hepatic microsomal metabolism of testosterone and alkoxyresorufins.
Kelley M, Womack J, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Jun; 39(12):1991-8.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds on the occupied nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Cancer Res. 1990 Jun; 50(12):3579-84.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as an antiestrogen: effect on rat uterine peroxidase activity.
Astroff B, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Feb; 39(3):485-8.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs).
Safe S
Crit Rev Toxicol. 1990 21(1):51-88.
Neonatal modulation of adult rat hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activities by Aroclor 1254 or phenobarbital.
Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH
J Biochem Toxicol. 1990 Win; 5(4):203-10.
6-substituted-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists in the rat: structure activity relationships.
Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1989 Dec; 59(3):285-96.
Development and validation of in vitro induction assays for toxic halogenated aromatic mixtures: a review.
Safe S, Mason G, Sawyer T, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Yao C, Keys B, Farrell K, Holcomb M, Davis D
Toxicol Ind Health. 1989 Oct; 5(5):757-75.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced porphyria in genetically inbred mice: partial antagonism and mechanistic studies.
Yao C, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 Sep; 100(2):208-16.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in human breast cancer cell lines and characterization of the Ah receptor.
Harris M, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Zacharewski T, Romkes M, Safe S
Cancer Res. 1989 Aug; 49(16):4531-5.
Induction of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities in rat hepatoma H-4-IIE cells in culture by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds: mechanistic studies using radiolabeled congeners.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Aug; 272(2):344-55.
Dose-response immunotoxicities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Davis D, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1989 Jul; 48(1):35-43.
Partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase by 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran: mechanistic studies.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Astroff B, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 1989 May; 35(5):729-35.
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6J mice.
Biegel L, Harris M, Davis D, Rosengren R, Safe L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 Mar; 97(3):561-71.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6 mice.
Bannister R, Biegel L, Davis D, Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1989 Feb; 54(2):139-50.
Induction of glutathione S-transferases in genetically inbred male mice by dietary ethoxyquin hydrochloride.
Makary M, Kim HL, Safe S, Womack J, Ivie GW
Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989 92(2):171-4.
Effects of sesquiterpene lactones on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimham TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
Gen Pharmacol. 1989 20(5):681-7.
Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in carcinogenesis and potential as a drug target.
Safe S, Lee SO, Jin UH
Toxicol Sci. 135(1):1-16.
Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.
Nair V, Pathi S, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 34(12):2870-9.
1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methane compounds inhibit lung cancer cell and tumor growth in a metastasis model.
Andey T, Patel A, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M
Eur J Pharm Sci. 50(2):227-41.
The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Jin UH, Kang JH, Kim SB, Guthrie AS, Sreevalsan S, Lee JS, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 12(4):527-38.
Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors by targeting microRNAs.
Gandhy SU, Kim K, Larsen L, Rosengren RJ, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 12:564.
Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements.
Fleming JG, Spencer TE, Safe SH, Bazer FW
Endocrinology. 147(2):899-911.
Inhibition of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha induced endothelial cell activation by a new class of PPAR-gamma agonists. An in vitro study showing receptor-independent effects.
Calabrò P, Samudio I, Safe SH, Willerson JT, Yeh ET
J Vasc Res. 42(6):509-16.
Cytotoxicity of pomegranate polyphenolics in breast cancer cells in vitro and vivo: potential role of miRNA-27a and miRNA-155 in cell survival and inflammation.
Banerjee N, Talcott S, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott SU
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 136(1):21-34.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-active pharmaceuticals are selective AHR modulators in MDA-MB-468 and BT474 breast cancer cells.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Safe S
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 343(2):333-41.
Induction of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 in prostate cancer cells by drug-induced targeting of microRNA-17-92/106b-25 clusters.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Pathi SS, Jin UH, Lee JS, Park YY, Cho SG, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 11(9):1852-62.
Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.
Schulz VJ, Smit JJ, Huijgen V, Bol-Schoenmakers M, van Roest M, Kruijssen LJ, Fiechter D, Hassing I, Bleumink R, Safe S, van Duursen MB, van den Berg M, Pieters RH
Toxicol Sci. 128(1):92-102.
Small molecule tolfenamic acid inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse model for prostate cancer.
Sankpal UT, Abdelrahim M, Connelly SF, Lee CM, Madero-Visbal R, Colon J, Smith J, Safe S, Maliakal P, Basha R
Prostate. 72(15):1648-58.
Structure-dependent activation of NR4A2 (Nurr1) by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic)methane analogs in pancreatic cancer cells.
Li X, Lee SO, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 83(10):1445-55.
Targeting NR4A1 (TR3) in cancer cells and tumors.
Lee SO, Li X, Khan S, Safe S
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 15(2):195-206.
In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation.
Wu F, Xu R, Kim K, Martin J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 149(11):5696-705.
RNAi and cancer: Implications and applications.
Abdelrahim M, Safe S, Baker C, Abudayyeh A
J RNAi Gene Silencing. 2(1):136-45.
Sp transcription factor family and its role in cancer.
Safe S, Abdelrahim M
Eur J Cancer. 41(16):2438-48.
Investigation of macrophage polarization using bone marrow derived macrophages.
Ying W, Cheruku PS, Bazer FW, Safe SH, Zhou B
J Vis Exp. (76).
Mechanism of Metformin-dependent Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer: ROLE OF SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Nair V, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 289(40):27692-701.
HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer.
Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, Kim S, Safe S
Oncogene. 32(13):1616-25.
Inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma cell and tumor growth by targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Pathi S, Kim K, Chen C, Crose L, Linardic C, Safe S
Int J Cancer. 132(4):795-806.
Endocrine disruptors and falling sperm counts: lessons learned or not!
Safe S
Asian J Androl. 15(2):191-4.
The drug resistance suppression induced by curcuminoids in colon cancer SW-480 cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of the microRNA-27a-ZBTB10-Sp axis.
Noratto GD, Jutooru I, Safe S, Angel-Morales G, Mertens-Talcott SU
Mol Nutr Food Res. 57(9):1638-48.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a:ZBTB10-specificty protein pathway
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadlapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 9(2):195-202.
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.
van den Berg M, Denison MS, Birnbaum LS, Devito MJ, Fiedler H, Falandysz J, Rose M, Schrenk D, Safe S, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tysklind M, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 133(2):197-208.
Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?
Vrangbæk K, Sørensen LM
Scand J Public Health. 41(6):616-22.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand omeprazole inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Pfent C, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 14:498.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists but decrease HCT-116 colon cancer cell survival through receptor-independent activation of early growth response-1 and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Baek SJ, Liu S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 68(6):1782-92.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) directly targets mitochondrial glutathione to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.
Samudio I, Konopleva M, Hail N Jr, Shi YX, McQueen T, Hsu T, Evans R, Honda T, Gribble GW, Sporn M, Gilbert HF, Safe S, Andreeff M
J Biol Chem. 280(43):36273-82.
Activation of Nur77 by selected 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induces apoptosis through nuclear pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Burghardt R, Papineni S, Ramaiah S, Yoon K, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 280(26):24903-14.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid and related compounds inhibit growth of colon cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and -independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Konopleva M, Andreef M, Samudio I, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 68(1):119-28.
Induction of endoplasmic reticulum-induced stress genes in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells is dependent on Sp proteins.
Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 280(16):16508-13.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activation of p21 in Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells involves Sp1 and Sp4 proteins.
Hong J, Samudio I, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Endocrinology. 145(12):5774-85.
Paralogues of porcine aromatase cytochrome P450: a novel hydroxylase activity is associated with the survival of a duplicated gene.
Corbin CJ, Mapes SM, Marcos J, Shackleton CH, Morrow D, Safe S, Wise T, Ford JJ, Conley AJ
Endocrinology. 145(5):2157-64.
Cooperative coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells by SNURF and TATA-binding protein.
Saville B, Poukka H, Wormke M, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ, Stoner M, Samudio I, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 277(4):2485-97.
Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a
Del Follo-Martinez A, Banerjee N, Li X, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
Nutr Cancer. 65(3):494-504.
Tolfenamic acid decreases c-Met expression through Sp proteins degradation and inhibits lung cancer cells growth and tumor formation in orthotopic mice.
Colon J, Basha MR, Madero-Visbal R, Konduri S, Baker CH, Herrera LJ, Safe S, Sheikh-Hamad D, Abudayyeh A, Alvarado B, Abdelrahim M
Invest New Drugs. 29(1):41-51.
Therapeutic applications of NSAIDS in cancer: special emphasis on tolfenamic acid.
Basha R, Baker CH, Sankpal UT, Ahmad S, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abdelrahim M
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 3:797-805.
Betulinic acid decreases ER-negative breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: role of Sp transcription factors and microRNA-27a:ZBTB10.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Noratto GD, Li X, Angel-Morales G, Bertoldi MC, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 52(8):591-602.
Neuroprotective efficacy and pharmacokinetic behavior of novel anti-inflammatory para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Miller JA, Hansen RJ, Lunghofer PJ, Safe S, Gustafson DL, Colagiovanni D, Tjalkens RB
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 345(1):125-38.
Mithramycin A inhibits myeloid cell leukemia-1 to induce apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinomas and tumor xenograft through activation of Bax and oligomerization.
Shin JA, Jung JY, Ryu MH, Safe S, Cho SD
Mol Pharmacol. 83(1):33-41.
Tolfenamic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Pathi S, Li X, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 53 Suppl 1:E53-61.
miR-150 blocks MLL-AF9-associated leukemia through oncogene repression.
Bousquet M, Zhuang G, Meng C, Ying W, Cheruku PS, Shie AT, Wang S, Ge G, Wong P, Wang G, Safe S, Zhou B
Mol Cancer Res. 11(8):912-22.
Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic) methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1).
Boakye CH, Doddapaneni R, Shah PP, Patel AR, Godugu C, Safe S, Katiyar SK, Singh M
PLoS One. 8(8):e69519.
Diindolylmethane Analogs Bind NR4A1 and Are NR4A1 Antagonists in Colon Cancer Cells.
Lee SO, Li X, Hedrick E, Jin UH, Tjalkens RB, Backos DS, Li L, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 28(10):1729-39.
Interferon tau alleviates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance by regulating macrophage polarization.
Ying W, Kanameni S, Chang CA, Nair V, Safe S, Bazer FW, Zhou B
PLoS One. 9(6):e98835.
Microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolites and their aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent agonist and antagonist activities.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Sridharan G, Lee K, Davidson LA, Jayaraman A, Chapkin RS, Alaniz R, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 85(5):777-88.
Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Pathi S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Nair V, Lee SO, Safe S
PLoS One. 7(10):e48208.
Effect of tolfenamic acid on canine cancer cell proliferation, specificity protein (sp) transcription factors, and sp-regulated proteins in canine osteosarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and melanoma cells.
Wilson H, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sheppard S, Pfent C, Safe S
J Vet Intern Med. 26(4):977-86.
The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.
Barchowsky A, Buckley LA, Carlson GP, Fitsanakis VA, Ford SM, Genter MB, Germolec DR, Leavens TL, Lehman-McKeeman LD, Safe SH, Sulentic CE, Eidemiller BJ
Toxicol Sci. 127(2):331-8.
Pharmacokinetic evaluation and in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of novel methylene-substituted 3,3' diindolylmethane (DIM).
Patel AR, Spencer SD, Chougule MB, Safe S, Singh M
Eur J Pharm Sci. 46(1-2):8-16.
Inactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor TR3/Nur77 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth.
Lee SO, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Kim K, Wang H, Safe S
Cancer Res. 70(17):6824-36.
Toxicological and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
Roberts RA, Smith RA, Safe S, Szabo C, Tjalkens RB, Robertson FM
Toxicology. 276(2):85-94.
Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer.
Ichite N, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M
Mol Cancer Ther. 9(11):3003-14.
Bevacizumab/docetaxel association is more efficient than docetaxel alone in reducing breast and prostate cancer cell growth: a new paradigm for understanding the therapeutic effect of combined treatment.
Ortholan C, Durivault J, Hannoun-Levi JM, Guyot M, Bourcier C, Ambrosetti D, Safe S, Pagès G
Eur J Cancer. 46(16):3022-36.
Reconstruction of nuclear receptor network reveals that NR2E3 is a novel upstream regulator of ESR1 in breast cancer.
Park YY, Kim K, Kim SB, Hennessy BT, Kim SM, Park ES, Lim JY, Li J, Lu Y, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Jeong W, Mills GB, Safe S, Lee JS
EMBO Mol Med. 4(1):52-67.
The nuclear receptor TR3 regulates mTORC1 signaling in lung cancer cells expressing wild-type p53.
Lee SO, Andey T, Jin UH, Kim K, Singh M, Safe S
Oncogene. 31(27):3265-76.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induce microRNA-335 expression and inhibit lung metastasis of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Kim K, Jin UH, Pfent C, Cao H, Amendt B, Liu X, Wilson-Robles H, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 11(1):108-18.
PAH particles perturb prenatal processes and phenotypes: protection from deficits in object discrimination afforded by dampening of brain oxidoreductase following in utero exposure to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene.
Li Z, Chadalapaka G, Ramesh A, Khoshbouei H, Maguire M, Safe S, Rhoades RE, Clark R, Jules G, McCallister M, Aschner M, Hood DB
Toxicol Sci. 125(1):233-47.
Identification of oncogenic microRNA-17-92/ZBTB4/specificity protein axis in breast cancer.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Lee SO, Yamada D, Sastre-Garau X, Defossez PA, Park YY, Lee JS, Safe S
Oncogene. 31(8):1034-44.
Activation of nuclear TR3 (NR4A1) by a diindolylmethane analog induces apoptosis and proapoptotic genes in pancreatic cancer cells and tumors.
Yoon K, Lee SO, Cho SD, Kim K, Khan S, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 32(6):836-42.
Antiandrogenic and growth inhibitory effects of ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (ring-DIMs) in hormone-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
Abdelbaqi K, Lack N, Guns ET, Kotha L, Safe S, Sanderson JT
Prostate. 71(13):1401-12.
Inhibition of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 in thyroid cancer cells by drugs that decrease specificity proteins.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lee SO, Lei P, Jin UH, Sherman SI, Santarpia L, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 50(9):655-67.
Chemopreventive effects of tolfenamic acid against esophageal tumorigenesis in rats.
Maliakal P, Abdelrahim M, Sankpal UT, Maliakal C, Baker CH, Safe S, Herrera LJ, Abudayyeh A, Kaja S, Basha R
Invest New Drugs. 30(3):853-61.
Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies.
Wu F, Ivanov I, Xu R, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 42(1):19-33.
Suppression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced nitric-oxide synthase 2 expression in astrocytes by a novel diindolylmethane analog protects striatal neurons against apoptosis.
Carbone DL, Popichak KA, Moreno JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Mol Pharmacol. 75(1):35-43.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase.
Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 29(6):1139-47.
Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens.
Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 110(1-2):104-15.
2-cyano-lup-1-en-3-oxo-20-oic acid, a cyano derivative of betulinic acid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Liu S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Cho SD, Murthy RS, You Y, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 28(11):2337-46.
Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr
Carcinogenesis. 28(10):2227-35.
The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 93(2):223-41.
Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Yoon K, Safe S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 345(1):292-301.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Vanderlaag K, Porter W, Metz RP, Safe S
Endocrinology. 147(7):3285-95.
3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5.
Abdelrahim M, Newman K, Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 27(4):717-28.
Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner.
Lee SH, Yamaguchi K, Kim JS, Eling TE, Safe S, Park Y, Baek SJ
Carcinogenesis. 27(5):972-81.
Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2alpha and specificity protein-1.
Mitchell DC, Abdelrahim M, Weng J, Stafford LJ, Safe S, Bar-Eli M, Liu M
J Biol Chem. 281(1):51-8.
Mechanistic relationships between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures.
Phillips TD, Richardson M, Cheng YS, He L, McDonald TJ, Cizmas LH, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Wang F, Moorthy B, Zhou GD
Arch Toxicol.
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1 as a therapeutic target.
Safe S, Imanirad P, Sreevalsan S, Nair V, Jutooru I
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 18(7):759-69.
MicroRNA-26b represses colon cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting lymphoid enhancer factor 1 expression.
Zhang Z, Kim K, Li X, Moreno M, Sharp T, Goodheart MJ, Safe S, Dupuy AJ, Amendt BA
Mol Cancer Ther. 13(7):1942-51.
Mechanism of action of phenethylisothiocyanate and other reactive oxygen species-inducing anticancer agents.
Jutooru I, Guthrie AS, Chadalapaka G, Pathi S, Kim K, Burghardt R, Jin UH, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 34(13):2382-95.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me), a derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.
Pang X, Zhang L, Wu Y, Lin L, Li J, Qu W, Safe S, Liu M
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 335(1):172-9.
Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its coactivator DRIP205 in cellular responses to CDDO (RTA-401) in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Tsao T, Kornblau S, Safe S, Watt JC, Ruvolo V, Chen W, Qiu Y, Coombes KR, Ju Z, Abdelrahim M, Schober W, Ling X, Kardassis D, Meyer C, Schimmer A, Kantarjian H, Andreeff M, Konopleva M
Cancer Res. 70(12):4949-60.
Xenoestrogen-induced regulation of EZH2 and histone methylation via estrogen receptor signaling to PI3K/AKT.
Bredfeldt TG, Greathouse KL, Safe SH, Hung MC, Bedford MT, Walker CL
Mol Endocrinol. 24(5):993-1006.
Activation of nerve growth factor-induced B alpha by methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes in bladder cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
Cho SD, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Yoon K, Kamat AM, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 77(3):396-404.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells.
Guo J, Chintharlapalli S, Lee SO, Cho SD, Lei P, Papineni S, Safe S
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 66(1):141-50.
Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease.
da Costa CA, Sunyach C, Giaime E, West A, Corti O, Brice A, Safe S, Abou-Sleiman PM, Wood NW, Takahashi H, Goldberg MS, Shen J, Checler F
Nat Cell Biol. 11(11):1370-5.
p21 expression is induced by activation of nuclear nerve growth factor-induced Balpha (Nur77) in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Liu S, Papineni S, Cho SD, Yoon K, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 7(7):1169-78.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy.
Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer. 16(3):835-44.
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid inhibits BT474 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell and tumor growth by repressing erbB2 expression.
Liu X, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Lei P, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 8(5):1207-17.
Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression.
Konduri S, Colon J, Baker CH, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abudayyeh A, Basha MR, Abdelrahim M
Mol Cancer Ther. 8(3):533-42.
The selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran inhibits prostate tumor metastasis in TRAMP mice.
Fritz WA, Lin TM, Safe S, Moore RW, Peterson RE
Biochem Pharmacol. 77(7):1151-60.
The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 decreases specificity protein transcription factors and the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E in colon cancer cells.
Sreevalsan S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 12(11):2483-93.
Ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) induce apoptosis and necrosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Goldberg AA, Titorenko VI, Beach A, Abdelbaqi K, Safe S, Sanderson JT
Invest New Drugs. 32(1):25-36.
Minireview: role of orphan nuclear receptors in cancer and potential as drug targets.
Safe S, Jin UH, Hedrick E, Reeder A, Lee SO
Mol Endocrinol. 28(2):157-72.
Theranostic tumor homing nanocarriers for the treatment of lung cancer.
Patel AR, Chougule MB, Lim E, Francis KP, Safe S, Singh M
Nanomedicine. 10(5):1053-63.
The transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 regulates EZH2 through a MicroRNA-ZBTB4-specificity protein signaling axis.
Yang WS, Chadalapaka G, Cho SG, Lee SO, Jin UH, Jutooru I, Choi K, Leung YK, Ho SM, Safe S, Kim K
Neoplasia. 16(12):1059-69.
Omeprazole Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through a Nongenomic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.
Jin UH, Kim SB, Safe S
Chem Res Toxicol. 28(5):907-18.
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC.
Gandhy SU, Imanirad P, Jin UH, Nair V, Hedrick E, Cheng Y, Corton JC, Kim K, Safe S
Oncotarget.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Doddapaneni R, Singh M, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer.
Characterization and Biological Potency of Mono- to Tetra-Halogenated Carbazoles.
Riddell N, Jin UH, Safe S, Cheng Y, Chittim B, Konstantinov A, Parette R, Pena-Abaurrea M, Reiner EJ, Poirier D, Stefanac T, McAlees AJ, McCrindle R
Environ Sci Technol. 49(17):10658-66.
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors.
Hedrick E, Crose L, Linardic CM, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther.
Dietary γ-Tocopherol Rich Mixture Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Estrogen Metabolism, Antioxidant Response and PPARγ.
Das Gupta S, Sae-Tan S, Wahler J, So JY, Bak MJ, Cheng LC, Lee MJ, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Shull JD, Safe S, Yang CS, Suh N
Cancer Prev Res (Phila).
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its ring-substituted halogenated analogs (ring-DIMs) induce differential mechanisms of survival and death in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Goldberg AA, Draz H, Montes-Grajales D, Olivero-Verbél J, Safe SH, Sanderson JT
Genes Cancer. 6(5-6):265-80.
Evaluation of self-emulsified DIM-14 in dogs for oral bioavailability and in Nu/nu mice bearing stem cell lung tumor models for anticancer activity.
Patel AR, Doddapaneni R, Andey T, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M
J Control Release. 213:18-26.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Kim G, Abdelrahim M, Jin UH, Safe S, Abudayyeh A
PLoS One. 10(6):e0128308.
A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells.
Fan YY, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Wright GA, Safe S, Chapkin RS
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 309(1):G1-9.
Nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family - orphans no more.
Safe S, Jin UH, Morpurgo B, Abudayyeh A, Singh M, Tjalkens RB
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.
The long non-coding RNA HOTTIP enhances pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration.
Cheng Y, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Corton JC, Safe S
Oncotarget. 6(13):10840-52.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Tryptophan Metabolites in Young Adult Mouse Colonocytes.
Cheng Y, Jin UH, Allred CD, Jayraman A, Chapkin RS, Safe S
Drug Metab Dispos.
The Nurr1 Activator 1,1-Bis(3'-Indolyl)-1-(p-Chlorophenyl)Methane Blocks Inflammatory Gene Expression in BV-2 Microglial Cells by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor κB.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Jorgensen BA, Phillips AT, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Mol Pharmacol. 87(6):1021-34.
Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer--letter.
Safe S
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 8(4):338.
Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Miller JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Toxicol Sci. 143(2):360-73.
Evaluation of Spray BIO-Max DIM-P in Dogs for Oral Bioavailability and in Nu/nu Mice Bearing Orthotopic/Metastatic Lung Tumor Models for Anticancer Activity.
Patel AR, Godugu C, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M
Pharm Res. 32(7):2292-300.
Enhanced Percutaneous Delivery of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) Methane for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention.
Boakye CH, Shah PP, Doddapaneni R, Patel AR, Safe S, Singh M
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 11(7):1269-81.


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