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Stephen Safe

Distinguished Professor

Curriculum Vitae

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Phone: (979) 845-5988

Mailstop: 4466

Department: VTPP

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Education

  • D.Phil. Bioorganic Chemistry, Oxford University, Great Britain 1965
  • M.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1963
  • B.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1962

Scholarly Interests

Toxicology and molecular biology of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds; molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptor and Ah receptor action and their crosstalk in breast cancer; NR4A1 and Sp proteins as drug targets; long non-coding RNAs

Publications

Characterization and Biological Potency of Mono- to Tetra-Halogenated Carbazoles.
Riddell N, Jin UH, Safe S, Cheng Y, Chittim B, Konstantinov A, Parette R, Pena-Abaurrea M, Reiner EJ, Poirier D, Stefanac T, McAlees AJ, McCrindle R
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 49(17):10658-66.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Doddapaneni R, Singh M, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors.
Hedrick E, Crose L, Linardic CM, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC.
Gandhy SU, Imanirad P, Jin UH, Nair V, Hedrick E, Cheng Y, Corton JC, Kim K, Safe S
Oncotarget. 2015
A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells.
Fan YY, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Wright GA, Safe S, Chapkin RS
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 309(1):G1-9.
Evaluation of Spray BIO-Max DIM-P in Dogs for Oral Bioavailability and in Nu/nu Mice Bearing Orthotopic/Metastatic Lung Tumor Models for Anticancer Activity.
Patel AR, Godugu C, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M
Pharm Res. 2015 32(7):2292-300.
Enhanced Percutaneous Delivery of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) Methane for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention.
Boakye CH, Shah PP, Doddapaneni R, Patel AR, Safe S, Singh M
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015 11(7):1269-81.
Dietary γ-Tocopherol Rich Mixture Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Estrogen Metabolism, Antioxidant Response and PPARγ.
Das Gupta S, Sae-Tan S, Wahler J, So JY, Bak MJ, Cheng LC, Lee MJ, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Shull JD, Safe S, Yang CS, Suh N
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015
Evaluation of self-emulsified DIM-14 in dogs for oral bioavailability and in Nu/nu mice bearing stem cell lung tumor models for anticancer activity.
Patel AR, Doddapaneni R, Andey T, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M
J Control Release. 2015 213(213):18-26.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Kim G, Abdelrahim M, Jin UH, Safe S, Abudayyeh A
PLoS One. 2015 10(6).
The Nurr1 Activator 1,1-Bis(3'-Indolyl)-1-(p-Chlorophenyl)Methane Blocks Inflammatory Gene Expression in BV-2 Microglial Cells by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor κB.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Jorgensen BA, Phillips AT, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Mol Pharmacol. 2015 87(6):1021-34.
Omeprazole Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through a Nongenomic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.
Jin UH, Kim SB, Safe S
Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 28(5):907-18.
The long non-coding RNA HOTTIP enhances pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration.
Cheng Y, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Corton JC, Safe S
Oncotarget. 2015 6(13):10840-52.
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its ring-substituted halogenated analogs (ring-DIMs) induce differential mechanisms of survival and death in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Goldberg AA, Draz H, Montes-Grajales D, Olivero-Verbél J, Safe SH, Sanderson JT
Genes Cancer. 2015 6(5-6):265-80.
Nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family - orphans no more.
Safe S, Jin UH, Morpurgo B, Abudayyeh A, Singh M, Tjalkens RB
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Tryptophan Metabolites in Young Adult Mouse Colonocytes.
Cheng Y, Jin UH, Allred CD, Jayraman A, Chapkin RS, Safe S
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015
Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer--letter.
Safe S
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 8(4):338.
Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Miller JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Toxicol Sci. 2015 143(2):360-73.
The transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 regulates EZH2 through a MicroRNA-ZBTB4-specificity protein signaling axis.
Yang WS, Chadalapaka G, Cho SG, Lee SO, Jin UH, Jutooru I, Choi K, Leung YK, Ho SM, Safe S, Kim K
Neoplasia. 2014 16(12):1059-69.
Mechanism of Metformin-dependent Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer: ROLE OF SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Nair V, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2014 289(40):27692-701.
Diindolylmethane Analogs Bind NR4A1 and Are NR4A1 Antagonists in Colon Cancer Cells.
Lee SO, Li X, Hedrick E, Jin UH, Tjalkens RB, Backos DS, Li L, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2014 28(10):1729-39.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand omeprazole inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Pfent C, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2014 14(14):498.
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1 as a therapeutic target.
Safe S, Imanirad P, Sreevalsan S, Nair V, Jutooru I
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014 18(7):759-69.
MicroRNA-26b represses colon cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting lymphoid enhancer factor 1 expression.
Zhang Z, Kim K, Li X, Moreno M, Sharp T, Goodheart MJ, Safe S, Dupuy AJ, Amendt BA
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 13(7):1942-51.
Mechanism of action of phenethylisothiocyanate and other reactive oxygen species-inducing anticancer agents.
Jutooru I, Guthrie AS, Chadalapaka G, Pathi S, Kim K, Burghardt R, Jin UH, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 2014 34(13):2382-95.
Theranostic tumor homing nanocarriers for the treatment of lung cancer.
Patel AR, Chougule MB, Lim E, Francis KP, Safe S, Singh M
Nanomedicine. 2014 10(5):1053-63.
Interferon tau alleviates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance by regulating macrophage polarization.
Ying W, Kanameni S, Chang CA, Nair V, Safe S, Bazer FW, Zhou B
PLoS One. 2014 9(6).
Mechanistic relationships between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures.
Phillips TD, Richardson M, Cheng YS, He L, McDonald TJ, Cizmas LH, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Wang F, Moorthy B, Zhou GD
Arch Toxicol. 2014
Microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolites and their aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent agonist and antagonist activities.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Sridharan G, Lee K, Davidson LA, Jayaraman A, Chapkin RS, Alaniz R, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2014 85(5):777-88.
The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Jin UH, Kang JH, Kim SB, Guthrie AS, Sreevalsan S, Lee JS, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2014 12(4):527-38.
Tolfenamic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Pathi S, Li X, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2014 53(Suppl 1):E53-61.
Ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) induce apoptosis and necrosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Goldberg AA, Titorenko VI, Beach A, Abdelbaqi K, Safe S, Sanderson JT
Invest New Drugs. 2014 32(1):25-36.
Minireview: role of orphan nuclear receptors in cancer and potential as drug targets.
Safe S, Jin UH, Hedrick E, Reeder A, Lee SO
Mol Endocrinol. 2014 28(2):157-72.
Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.
Nair V, Pathi S, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2013 34(12):2870-9.
The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 decreases specificity protein transcription factors and the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E in colon cancer cells.
Sreevalsan S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 12(11):2483-93.
1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methane compounds inhibit lung cancer cell and tumor growth in a metastasis model.
Andey T, Patel A, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013 50(2):227-41.
Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in carcinogenesis and potential as a drug target.
Safe S, Lee SO, Jin UH
Toxicol Sci. 2013 135(1):1-16.
The drug resistance suppression induced by curcuminoids in colon cancer SW-480 cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of the microRNA-27a-ZBTB10-Sp axis.
Noratto GD, Jutooru I, Safe S, Angel-Morales G, Mertens-Talcott SU
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 57(9):1638-48.
Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic) methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1).
Boakye CH, Doddapaneni R, Shah PP, Patel AR, Godugu C, Safe S, Katiyar SK, Singh M
PLoS One. 2013 8(8).
Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?
Vrangbæk K, Sørensen LM
Scand J Public Health. 2013 41(6):616-22.
miR-150 blocks MLL-AF9-associated leukemia through oncogene repression.
Bousquet M, Zhuang G, Meng C, Ying W, Cheruku PS, Shie AT, Wang S, Ge G, Wong P, Wang G, Safe S, Zhou B
Mol Cancer Res. 2013 11(8):912-22.
Betulinic acid decreases ER-negative breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: role of Sp transcription factors and microRNA-27a:ZBTB10.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Noratto GD, Li X, Angel-Morales G, Bertoldi MC, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2013 52(8):591-602.
Investigation of macrophage polarization using bone marrow derived macrophages.
Ying W, Cheruku PS, Bazer FW, Safe SH, Zhou B
J Vis Exp. 2013 (76).
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.
van den Berg M, Denison MS, Birnbaum LS, Devito MJ, Fiedler H, Falandysz J, Rose M, Schrenk D, Safe S, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tysklind M, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 2013 133(2):197-208.
Neuroprotective efficacy and pharmacokinetic behavior of novel anti-inflammatory para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Miller JA, Hansen RJ, Lunghofer PJ, Safe S, Gustafson DL, Colagiovanni D, Tjalkens RB
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 345(1):125-38.
HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer.
Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, Kim S, Safe S
Oncogene. 2013 32(13):1616-25.
Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a
Del Follo-Martinez A, Banerjee N, Li X, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
Nutr Cancer. 2013 65(3):494-504.
Endocrine disruptors and falling sperm counts: lessons learned or not!
Safe S
Asian J Androl. 2013 15(2):191-4.
Inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma cell and tumor growth by targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Pathi S, Kim K, Chen C, Crose L, Linardic C, Safe S
Int J Cancer. 2013 132(4):795-806.
Mithramycin A inhibits myeloid cell leukemia-1 to induce apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinomas and tumor xenograft through activation of Bax and oligomerization.
Shin JA, Jung JY, Ryu MH, Safe S, Cho SD
Mol Pharmacol. 2013 83(1):33-41.
Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors by targeting microRNAs.
Gandhy SU, Kim K, Larsen L, Rosengren RJ, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2012 12(12):564.
Cytotoxicity of pomegranate polyphenolics in breast cancer cells in vitro and vivo: potential role of miRNA-27a and miRNA-155 in cell survival and inflammation.
Banerjee N, Talcott S, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott SU
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012 136(1):21-34.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-active pharmaceuticals are selective AHR modulators in MDA-MB-468 and BT474 breast cancer cells.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Safe S
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 343(2):333-41.
Small molecule tolfenamic acid inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse model for prostate cancer.
Sankpal UT, Abdelrahim M, Connelly SF, Lee CM, Madero-Visbal R, Colon J, Smith J, Safe S, Maliakal P, Basha R
Prostate. 2012 72(15):1648-58.
Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Pathi S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Nair V, Lee SO, Safe S
PLoS One. 2012 7(10).
Induction of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 in prostate cancer cells by drug-induced targeting of microRNA-17-92/106b-25 clusters.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Pathi SS, Jin UH, Lee JS, Park YY, Cho SG, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(9):1852-62.
The nuclear receptor TR3 regulates mTORC1 signaling in lung cancer cells expressing wild-type p53.
Lee SO, Andey T, Jin UH, Kim K, Singh M, Safe S
Oncogene. 2012 31(27):3265-76.
Effect of tolfenamic acid on canine cancer cell proliferation, specificity protein (sp) transcription factors, and sp-regulated proteins in canine osteosarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and melanoma cells.
Wilson H, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sheppard S, Pfent C, Safe S
J Vet Intern Med. 2012 26(4):977-86.
Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.
Schulz VJ, Smit JJ, Huijgen V, Bol-Schoenmakers M, van Roest M, Kruijssen LJ, Fiechter D, Hassing I, Bleumink R, Safe S, van Duursen MB, van den Berg M, Pieters RH
Toxicol Sci. 2012 128(1):92-102.
Betulinic Acid Targets YY1 and ErbB2 through Cannabinoid Receptor-Dependent Disruption of MicroRNA-27a:ZBTB10 in Breast Cancer.
Liu X, Jutooru I, Lei P, Kim K, Lee SO, Brents LK, Prather PL, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(7):1421-31.
A novel regulator of macrophage activation: miR-223 in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation.
Zhuang G, Meng C, Guo X, Cheruku PS, Shi L, Xu H, Li H, Wang G, Evans AR, Safe S, Wu C, Zhou B
Circulation. 2012 125(23):2892-903.
The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.
Barchowsky A, Buckley LA, Carlson GP, Fitsanakis VA, Ford SM, Genter MB, Germolec DR, Leavens TL, Lehman-McKeeman LD, Safe SH, Sulentic CE, Eidemiller BJ
Toxicol Sci. 2012 127(2):331-8.
Chemopreventive effects of tolfenamic acid against esophageal tumorigenesis in rats.
Maliakal P, Abdelrahim M, Sankpal UT, Maliakal C, Baker CH, Safe S, Herrera LJ, Abudayyeh A, Kaja S, Basha R
Invest New Drugs. 2012 30(3):853-61.
Structure-dependent activation of NR4A2 (Nurr1) by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic)methane analogs in pancreatic cancer cells.
Li X, Lee SO, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 83(10):1445-55.
Pharmacokinetic evaluation and in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of novel methylene-substituted 3,3' diindolylmethane (DIM).
Patel AR, Spencer SD, Chougule MB, Safe S, Singh M
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012 46(1-2):8-16.
Unifying Mechanisms of Action of the Anticancer Activities of Triterpenoids and Synthetic Analogs.
Safe SH, Prather PL, Brents LK, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012
Celastrol decreases specificity proteins (Sp) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2012 33(4):886-94.
Identification of oncogenic microRNA-17-92/ZBTB4/specificity protein axis in breast cancer.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Lee SO, Yamada D, Sastre-Garau X, Defossez PA, Park YY, Lee JS, Safe S
Oncogene. 2012 31(8):1034-44.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induce microRNA-335 expression and inhibit lung metastasis of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Kim K, Jin UH, Pfent C, Cao H, Amendt B, Liu X, Wilson-Robles H, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(1):108-18.
PAH particles perturb prenatal processes and phenotypes: protection from deficits in object discrimination afforded by dampening of brain oxidoreductase following in utero exposure to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene.
Li Z, Chadalapaka G, Ramesh A, Khoshbouei H, Maguire M, Safe S, Rhoades RE, Clark R, Jules G, McCallister M, Aschner M, Hood DB
Toxicol Sci. 2012 125(1):233-47.
Reconstruction of nuclear receptor network reveals that NR2E3 is a novel upstream regulator of ESR1 in breast cancer.
Park YY, Kim K, Kim SB, Hennessy BT, Kim SM, Park ES, Lim JY, Li J, Lu Y, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Jeong W, Mills GB, Safe S, Lee JS
EMBO Mol Med. 2012 4(1):52-67.
Antiandrogenic and growth inhibitory effects of ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (ring-DIMs) in hormone-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
Abdelbaqi K, Lack N, Guns ET, Kotha L, Safe S, Sanderson JT
Prostate. 2011 71(13):1401-12.
Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells.
Pathi SS, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
Nutr Cancer. 2011 63(7):1133-42.
Inhibition of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 in thyroid cancer cells by drugs that decrease specificity proteins.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lee SO, Lei P, Jin UH, Sherman SI, Santarpia L, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2011 50(9):655-67.
Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lei P, Pathi S, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2011 11(11):371.
Activation of nuclear TR3 (NR4A1) by a diindolylmethane analog induces apoptosis and proapoptotic genes in pancreatic cancer cells and tumors.
Yoon K, Lee SO, Cho SD, Kim K, Khan S, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2011 32(6):836-42.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos E, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, Safe S, Parrish AR, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 253(1):45-56.
MDM2 regulates estrogen receptor a and estrogen responsiveness in breast cancer cells.
Kim K, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Lee SO, Liu X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2011 46(2):67-79.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a: ZBTB10-specificity protein pathway.
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2011 9(2):195-202.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a:ZBTB10-specificty protein pathway
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadlapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2011 9(2):195-202.
Tolfenamic acid decreases c-Met expression through Sp proteins degradation and inhibits lung cancer cells growth and tumor formation in orthotopic mice.
Colon J, Basha MR, Madero-Visbal R, Konduri S, Baker CH, Herrera LJ, Safe S, Sheikh-Hamad D, Abudayyeh A, Alvarado B, Abdelrahim M
Invest New Drugs. 2011 29(1):41-51.
Targeting NR4A1 (TR3) in cancer cells and tumors.
Lee SO, Li X, Khan S, Safe S
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2011 15(2):195-206.
Therapeutic applications of NSAIDS in cancer: special emphasis on tolfenamic acid.
Basha R, Baker CH, Sankpal UT, Ahmad S, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abdelrahim M
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011 3(3):797-805.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce autophagic cell death in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2010 10(10):669.
Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer.
Ichite N, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M
Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 9(11):3003-14.
Bevacizumab/docetaxel association is more efficient than docetaxel alone in reducing breast and prostate cancer cell growth: a new paradigm for understanding the therapeutic effect of combined treatment.
Ortholan C, Durivault J, Hannoun-Levi JM, Guyot M, Bourcier C, Ambrosetti D, Safe S, Pagès G
Eur J Cancer. 2010 46(16):3022-36.
Toxicological and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
Roberts RA, Smith RA, Safe S, Szabo C, Tjalkens RB, Robertson FM
Toxicology. 2010 276(2):85-94.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me), a derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.
Pang X, Zhang L, Wu Y, Lin L, Li J, Qu W, Safe S, Liu M
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 335(1):172-9.
Inactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor TR3/Nur77 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth.
Lee SO, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Kim K, Wang H, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2010 70(17):6824-36.
3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters.
Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2010 117(1):1-3.
Inhibition of NFkappaB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Lei P, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2010 285(33):25332-44.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate decreases specificity protein transcription factors and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth: role of microRNA-27a.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Abdelrahim M, Basha MR, Samudio I, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2010 78(2):226-36.
Arsenic trioxide downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and inhibits bladder cancer cell and tumor growth.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Lei P, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Exp Cell Res. 2010 316(13):2174-88.
Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its coactivator DRIP205 in cellular responses to CDDO (RTA-401) in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Tsao T, Kornblau S, Safe S, Watt JC, Ruvolo V, Chen W, Qiu Y, Coombes KR, Ju Z, Abdelrahim M, Schober W, Ling X, Kardassis D, Meyer C, Schimmer A, Kantarjian H, Andreeff M, Konopleva M
Cancer Res. 2010 70(12):4949-60.
MicroRNA-27a Indirectly Regulates Estrogen Receptor {alpha} Expression and Hormone Responsiveness in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Li X, Mertens-Talcott SU, Zhang S, Kim K, Ball J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2010 151(6):2462-73.
Drugs that target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2010 8(5):739-50.
Xenoestrogen-induced regulation of EZH2 and histone methylation via estrogen receptor signaling to PI3K/AKT.
Bredfeldt TG, Greathouse KL, Safe SH, Hung MC, Bedford MT, Walker CL
Mol Endocrinol. 2010 24(5):993-1006.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells.
Guo J, Chintharlapalli S, Lee SO, Cho SD, Lei P, Papineni S, Safe S
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 66(1):141-50.
Activation of nerve growth factor-induced B alpha by methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes in bladder cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
Cho SD, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Yoon K, Kamat AM, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2010 77(3):396-404.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-bromophenyl)methane and related compounds repress survivin and decrease gamma-radiation-induced survivin in colon and pancreatic cancer cells.
Sreevalsan S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Walker M, Safe S
Int J Oncol. 2009 35(5):1191-9.
Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease.
da Costa CA, Sunyach C, Giaime E, West A, Corti O, Brice A, Safe S, Abou-Sleiman PM, Wood NW, Takahashi H, Goldberg MS, Shen J, Checler F
Nat Cell Biol. 2009 11(11):1370-5.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy.
Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 16(3):835-44.
Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2009 48(8):692-702.
Tolfenamic acid inhibits esophageal cancer through repression of specificity proteins and c-Met.
Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lee SO, Burghardt R, Abudayyeh A, Baker C, Herrera L, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2009 30(7):1193-201.
p21 expression is induced by activation of nuclear nerve growth factor-induced Balpha (Nur77) in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Liu S, Papineni S, Cho SD, Yoon K, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2009 7(7):1169-78.
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid inhibits BT474 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell and tumor growth by repressing erbB2 expression.
Liu X, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Lei P, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 8(5):1207-17.
The selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran inhibits prostate tumor metastasis in TRAMP mice.
Fritz WA, Lin TM, Safe S, Moore RW, Peterson RE
Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 77(7):1151-60.
Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression.
Konduri S, Colon J, Baker CH, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abudayyeh A, Basha MR, Abdelrahim M
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 8(3):533-42.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines.
Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe S, Burghardt RC
J Toxicol Sci. 2009 34(1):13-25.
Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies.
Wu F, Ivanov I, Xu R, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2009 42(1):19-33.
Suppression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced nitric-oxide synthase 2 expression in astrocytes by a novel diindolylmethane analog protects striatal neurons against apoptosis.
Carbone DL, Popichak KA, Moreno JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Mol Pharmacol. 2009 75(1):35-43.
In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation.
Wu F, Xu R, Kim K, Martin J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2008 149(11):5696-705.
Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways.
Safe S, Kim K
J Mol Endocrinol. 2008 41(5):263-75.
Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3'-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs.
Safe S, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S
Cancer Lett. 2008 269(2):326-38.
Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R 3rd, Li X, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2008 68(13):5345-54.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase.
Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2008 29(6):1139-47.
Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro.
Pacheco-Palencia LA, Talcott ST, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 56(10):3593-600.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R 3rd, Khan S, Safe S
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 109(2):273-83.
Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens.
Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 110(1-2):104-15.
Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 18(8):2633-9.
Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay.
Zhang S, Rowlands C, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 227(2):196-206.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter W, Metz R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2008 22(2):388-402.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18 beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2008 73(2):553-65.
The oncogenic microRNA-27a targets genes that regulate specificity protein transcription factors and the G2-M checkpoint in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Chintharlapalli S, Li X, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2007 67(22):11001-11.
2-cyano-lup-1-en-3-oxo-20-oic acid, a cyano derivative of betulinic acid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Liu S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Cho SD, Murthy RS, You Y, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2007 28(11):2337-46.
Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr
Carcinogenesis. 2007 28(10):2227-35.
Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Wu Q, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2007 39(4):289-304.
Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 223(1):28-38.
Coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)/Sp1 by vitamin D receptor interacting protein 150 (DRIP150).
Lee J, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 461(2):200-10.
1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, and decrease the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2007 71(2):558-69.
Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes.
Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe S
Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 20(7):1234-7.
The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 2006 93(2):223-41.
Molecular mechanism of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor/Sp1 cross talk in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Liu S, Kim K, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2006 20(9):2199-214.
17beta-estradiol (E2) induces cdc25A gene expression in breast cancer cells by genomic and non-genomic pathways.
Ru Lee W, Chen CC, Liu S, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2006 99(1):209-20.
Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells.
Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe S, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Lett. 2006 165(2):133-41.
The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer.
Safe S, Papineni S
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 27(8):447-54.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Vanderlaag K, Porter W, Metz RP, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2006 147(7):3285-95.
Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Yoon K, Safe S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 345(1):292-301.
Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and induction of cell death by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)methane (DIM) and 5,5'-dibromoDIM.
Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
Cancer Lett. 2006 236(2):198-212.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 5(5):1362-70.
Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner.
Lee SH, Yamaguchi K, Kim JS, Eling TE, Safe S, Park Y, Baek SJ
Carcinogenesis. 2006 27(5):972-81.
3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5.
Abdelrahim M, Newman K, Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2006 27(4):717-28.
RNAi and cancer: Implications and applications.
Abdelrahim M, Safe S, Baker C, Abudayyeh A
J RNAi Gene Silencing. 2006 2(1):136-45.
Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements.
Fleming JG, Spencer TE, Safe SH, Bazer FW
Endocrinology. 2006 147(2):899-911.
Activation of kinase pathways in MCF-7 cells by 17beta-estradiol and structurally diverse estrogenic compounds.
Li X, Zhang S, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 98(2-3):122-32.
Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2alpha and specificity protein-1.
Mitchell DC, Abdelrahim M, Weng J, Stafford LJ, Safe S, Bar-Eli M, Liu M
J Biol Chem. 2006 281(1):51-8.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists but decrease HCT-116 colon cancer cell survival through receptor-independent activation of early growth response-1 and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Baek SJ, Liu S, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2005 68(6):1782-92.
Role of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-induced responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Li X, Burghardt R, Smith R 3rd, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2005 35(3):433-47.
Sp transcription factor family and its role in cancer.
Safe S, Abdelrahim M
Eur J Cancer. 2005 41(16):2438-48.
Inhibition of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha induced endothelial cell activation by a new class of PPAR-gamma agonists. An in vitro study showing receptor-independent effects.
Calabrò P, Samudio I, Safe SH, Willerson JT, Yeh ET
J Vasc Res. 2005 42(6):509-16.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) directly targets mitochondrial glutathione to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.
Samudio I, Konopleva M, Hail N Jr, Shi YX, McQueen T, Hsu T, Evans R, Honda T, Gribble GW, Sporn M, Gilbert HF, Safe S, Andreeff M
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(43):36273-82.
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors decrease vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer cells by enhanced degradation of Sp1 and Sp4 proteins.
Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2005 68(2):317-29.
Activation of Nur77 by selected 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induces apoptosis through nuclear pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Burghardt R, Papineni S, Ramaiah S, Yoon K, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(26):24903-14.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid and related compounds inhibit growth of colon cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and -independent pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Konopleva M, Andreef M, Samudio I, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2005 68(1):119-28.
Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 16(4):139-44.
Induction of endoplasmic reticulum-induced stress genes in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells is dependent on Sp proteins.
Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(16):16508-13.
Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha-Sp1 interactions in breast cancer cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
Kim K, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2005 19(4):843-54.
DRIP150 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells is independent of LXXLL motifs.
Lee JE, Kim K, Sacchettini JC, Smith CV, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(10):8819-30.
Vitamin D-interacting protein 205 (DRIP205) coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) involves multiple domains of both proteins.
Wu Q, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2004 279(51):53602-12.
Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem.
Safe S
Toxicology. 2004 205(1-2):3-10.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activation of p21 in Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells involves Sp1 and Sp4 proteins.
Hong J, Samudio I, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2004 145(12):5774-85.
Egr-1 is activated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ELK-1.
Chen CC, Lee WR, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2004 93(5):1063-74.
Role of Sp proteins in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2004 64(18):6740-9.
Estrogen-dependent regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer cells through activation of nongenomic cAMP-dependent pathways.
Qin C, Samudio I, Ngwenya S, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2004 40(3):160-70.
Paralogues of porcine aromatase cytochrome P450: a novel hydroxylase activity is associated with the survival of a duplicated gene.
Corbin CJ, Mapes SM, Marcos J, Shackleton CH, Morrow D, Safe S, Wise T, Ford JJ, Conley AJ
Endocrinology. 2004 145(5):2157-64.
Estrogen regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells through interaction of estrogen receptor alpha and SP proteins.
Stoner M, Wormke M, Saville B, Samudio I, Qin C, Abdelrahim M, Safe S
Oncogene. 2004 23(5):1052-63.
Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation through interaction with Sp proteins.
Safe S, Kim K
Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2004 77(77):1-36.
Comparative in vitro and in vivo genotoxicities of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, manufactured gas plant residue (MGP), and MGP fractions.
Cizmas L, Zhou GD, Safe SH, McDonald TJ, Zhu L, Donnelly KC
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004 43(3):159-68.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth and hormone-induced transactivation.
Morrow D, Qin C, Smith R 3rd, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 88(1):27-36.
Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context.
Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 111(16):1877-82.
Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor alpha cross-talk and mechanisms of action.
Safe S, Wormke M
Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 16(7):807-16.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene silencing with small inhibitory RNA differentially modulates Ah-responsiveness in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2003 63(6):1373-81.
Estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes are required for induction of cad gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2003 144(6):2325-35.
Domains of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) required for ERalpha/Sp1-mediated activation of GC-rich promoters by estrogens and antiestrogens in breast cancer cells.
Kim K, Thu N, Saville B, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2003 17(5):804-17.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists induce proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Qin C, Burghardt R, Smith R, Wormke M, Stewart J, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2003 63(5):958-64.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes.
Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 2003 23(6):1843-55.
17 beta-estradiol- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced transactivation in breast, endometrial and liver cancer cells is dependent on ER-subtype, cell and promoter context.
Castro-Rivera E, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 84(1):23-31.
Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, McDonnell D
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 110(Suppl 6):925-9.
Estrogen regulation of transferrin gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Vyhlidal C, Li X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2002 29(3):305-17.
Hypoxia induces proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells.
Stoner M, Saville B, Wormke M, Dean D, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 16(10):2231-42.
Environmental estrogens: roles in male reproductive tract problems and in breast cancer.
Safe S
Rev Environ Health. 2002 17(4):253-62.
Small inhibitory RNA duplexes for Sp1 mRNA block basal and estrogen-induced gene expression and cell cycle progression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2002 277(32):28815-22.
Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2002 68(2):444-50.
Estrogen up-regulation of p53 gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mediated by calmodulin kinase IV-dependent activation of a nuclear factor kappaB/CCAAT-binding transcription factor-1 complex.
Qin C, Nguyen T, Stewart J, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 16(8):1793-809.
Estrogen regulation of c-fos gene expression through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent activation of serum response factor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Duan R, Xie W, Li X, McDougal A, Safe S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 294(2):384-94.
Mechanism of action and development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of hormone-dependent cancers (Review).
Safe S, McDougal A
Int J Oncol. 2002 20(6):1123-8.
Doxycycline induces expression of P glycoprotein in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.
Mealey KL, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Kochevar DT
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 46(3):755-61.
Cooperative coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells by SNURF and TATA-binding protein.
Saville B, Poukka H, Wormke M, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ, Stoner M, Samudio I, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2002 277(4):2485-97.
Involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism in the inhibition of CYP1A1 expression by resveratrol in breast cancer cells.
Lee JE, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 62(8):1113-24.
Estrogen regulation of cyclin D1 gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells involves multiple enhancer elements.
Castro-Rivera E, Samudio I, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2001 276(33):30853-61.
Differential activation of wild-type and variant forms of estrogen receptor alpha by synthetic and natural estrogenic compounds using a promoter containing three estrogen-responsive elements.
Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Stoner M, Gaido K, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 78(1):25-32.
Activation of adenosine deaminase in MCF-7 cells through IGF-estrogen receptor alpha crosstalk.
Xie W, Duan R, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2001 26(3):217-28.
Tamoxifen-induced antitumorigenic/antiestrogenic action synergized by a selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator.
McDougal A, Wormke M, Calvin J, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2001 61(10):3902-7.
Estrogen receptor-mediated activation of the serum response element in MCF-7 cells through MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Elk-1.
Duan R, Xie W, Burghardt RC, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2001 276(15):11590-8.
Association of ARNT splice variants with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, poor induction of vascular endothelial growth factor under hypoxia, and poor prognosis.
Qin C, Wilson C, Blancher C, Taylor M, Safe S, Harris AL
Clin Cancer Res. 2001 7(4):818-23.
Molecular biology of the Ah receptor and its role in carcinogenesis.
Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 2001 120(1-3):1-7.
Transcriptional activation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha gene expression in MCF-7 cells by 17 beta-estradiol.
Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Stoner M, Chen I, Kladde M, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2001 142(3):1000-8.
Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats.
McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001 66(2):147-57.
Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition.
Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 172(1-2):91-103.
Transcriptional activation of heat shock protein 27 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol and modulation by antiestrogens and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.
Porter W, Wang F, Duan R, Qin C, Castro-Rivera E, Kim K, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2001 26(1):31-42.
Identification of estrogen-induced genes downregulated by AhR agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using suppression subtractive hybridization.
Chen I, Hsieh T, Thomas T, Safe S
Gene. 2001 262(1-2):207-14.
Transcriptional activation of genes by 17 beta-estradiol through estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions.
Safe S
Vitam Horm. 2001 62(62):231-52.
Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine endometrial epithelial cells.
Stewart MD, Johnson GA, Vyhlidal CA, Burghardt RC, Safe SH, Yu-Lee LY, Bazer FW, Spencer TE
Endocrinology. 2001 142(1):98-107.
Toxicology of environmental estrogens.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnellc D
Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001 13(4):307-15.
Transcriptional activation of rat creatine kinase B by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells involves an estrogen responsive element and GC-rich sites.
Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S
J Cell Biochem. 2001 84(1):156-72.
3',4'-dimethoxyflavone as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist in human breast cancer cells.
Lee JE, Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2000 58(2):235-42.
Bisphenol A and related endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2000 56(2):251-2.
Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HEC1A endometrial cancer cells through interactions of estrogen receptor alpha and Sp3 proteins.
Stoner M, Wang F, Wormke M, Nguyen T, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Marme D, Finkenzeller G, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 275(30):22769-79.
Transcriptional activation of thymidylate synthase by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Xie W, Duan R, Chen I, Samudio I, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2000 141(7):2439-49.
Mechanisms of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor crosstalk in human breast cancer cells.
Safe S, Wormke M, Samudio I
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2000 5(3):295-306.
Endocrine disruptors and human health--is there a problem? An update.
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 108(6):487-93.
Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines.
Yoon K, Pellaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000 162(1-2):211-20.
Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane.
McDougal A, Sethi Gupta M, Ramamoorthy K, Sun G, Safe SH
Cancer Lett. 2000 151(2):169-79.
Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by growth factors.
Wang F, Duan R, Chirgwin J, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2000 24(2):193-202.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and crosstalk in human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells.
Wormke M, Castro-Rivera E, Chen I, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 72(5):197-207.
Ligand-, cell-, and estrogen receptor subtype (alpha/beta)-dependent activation at GC-rich (Sp1) promoter elements.
Saville B, Wormke M, Wang F, Nguyen T, Enmark E, Kuiper G, Gustafsson JA, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 275(8):5379-87.
Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2000 53(2):264-70.
Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells.
Dong L, Wang W, Wang F, Stoner M, Reed JC, Harigai M, Samudio I, Kladde MP, Vyhlidal C, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1999 274(45):32099-107.
Symposium on mechanisms of action of naturally occurring anticarcinogens.
Safe S, Wargovich MJ, Lamartiniere CA, Mukhtar H
Toxicol Sci. 1999 52(1):1-8.
Transcriptional activation of c-fos protooncogene by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition.
Duan R, Porter W, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Kladde M, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1999 13(9):1511-21.
Development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of breast cancer.
Safe S, Qin C, McDougal A
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1999 8(9):1385-96.
Regulation of constitutive gene expression through interactions of Sp1 protein with the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex.
Wang F, Wang W, Safe S
Biochemistry. 1999 38(35):11490-500.
Transcriptional activation of E2F1 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells is regulated by NF-Y-Sp1/estrogen receptor interactions.
Wang W, Dong L, Saville B, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1999 13(8):1373-87.
Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes.
Qin C, Singh P, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1999 140(6):2501-8.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness of ECC-1 endometrial cancer cells.
Castro-Rivera E, Wormke M, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 150(1-2):11-21.
3,3'4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl exhibits antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity in the rodent uterus and mammary cells and in human breast cancer cells.
Ramamoorthy K, Gupta MS, Sun G, McDougal A, Safe SH
Carcinogenesis. 1999 20(1):115-23.
Estrogen induces adenosine deaminase gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions.
Xie W, Duan R, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1999 140(1):219-27.
Methods for xenoestrogen testing.
Safe S, Connor K, Gaido K
Toxicol Lett. 1998 102-103:665-70.
Ah receptor agonists as endocrine disruptors: antiestrogenic activity and mechanisms.
Safe S, Wang F, Porter W, Duan R, McDougal A
Toxicol Lett. 1998 102-103:343-7.
Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 16alpha- and 2-hydroxy metabolites of 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells.
Gupta M, McDougal A, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 67(5-6):413-9.
Mechanisms of ligand-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated biochemical and toxic responses.
Wilson CL, Safe S
Toxicol Pathol. 1998 26(5):657-71.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane.
Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1998 19(9):1631-9.
Hazard and risk assessment of chemical mixtures using the toxic equivalency factor approach.
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 106(Suppl 4):1051-8.
Functional and physical interactions between the estrogen receptor Sp1 and nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes.
Wang F, Hoivik D, Pollenz R, Safe S
Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 26(12):3044-52.
Estrogen-induced retinoic acid receptor alpha 1 gene expression: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complex.
Sun G, Porter W, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1998 12(6):882-90.
Ah receptor-independent induction of CYP1A2 gene expression in genetically inbred mice.
Gupta M, Miggens J, Parrish A, Womack J, Ramos KS, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein LS, Holtzapple C, Stanker L, Safe SH
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998 5(3):205-13.
Estrogen-induced c-fos protooncogene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor Sp1 complex formation.
Duan R, Porter W, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1998 139(4):1981-90.
Induction of 16alpha-/2-hydroxyestrone metabolite ratios in MCF-7 cells by pesticides, carcinogens, and antiestrogens does not predict mammary carcinogens.
McDougal A, Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 106(4):203-6.
Inhibition of CYP1A1-dependent activity by the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene.
Willett KL, Randerath K, Zhou GD, Safe SH
Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 55(6):831-9.
Estrogen- and antiestrogen-responsiveness of HEC1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in culture.
Castro-Rivera E, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 64(5-6):287-95.
Interactions between hormones and chemicals in breast cancer.
Safe SH
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998 38(38):121-58.
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons suppress CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices.
Hong SJ, Grover CA, Safe SH, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Frye GD
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 148(1):7-13.
Development validation and problems with the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of dioxins and related compounds.
Safe SH
J Anim Sci. 1998 76(1):134-41.
Altered phenotypic characteristics of T47d human breast cancer cells after prolonged growth in estrogen-deficient medium.
Fernandez P, Wilson C, Hoivik D, Safe SH
Cell Biol Int. 1998 22(9-10):623-33.
Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor growth by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.
McDougal A, Wilson C, Safe S
Cancer Lett. 1997 120(1):53-63.
Additive estrogenic activities of a binary mixture of 2',4',6'-trichloro- and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol.
Ramamoorthy K, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Chen I, Safe S, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 147(1):93-100.
Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor.
Porter W, Saville B, Hoivik D, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1997 11(11):1569-80.
Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) nonresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells is associated with expression of a variant arnt protein.
Wilson CL, Thomsen J, Hoivik DJ, Wormke MT, Stanker L, Holtzapple C, Safe SH
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 346(1):65-73.
17 beta-Estradiol-mediated growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with the estrogen receptor: cell cycle effects.
Wang W, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe SH
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997 133(1):49-62.
Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of TCDD and related compounds.
Safe S
Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1997 17(4-5):285-304.
Human exposure to endocrine-active chemicals: hazard assessment problems.
Safe S, Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Maness S
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1997 26(1 Pt 1):52-8.
Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships.
Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 145(1):111-23.
Identification of a functional imperfect estrogen-responsive element in the 5'-promoter region of the human cathepsin D gene.
Wang F, Porter W, Xing W, Archer TK, Safe S
Biochemistry. 1997 36(25):7793-801.
Characterization of the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for evaluation of environmental samples containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Willett KL, Gardinali PR, Sericano JL, Wade TL, Safe SH
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1997 32(4):442-8.
Mechanism of inhibition of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell growth by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Wang WL, Porter W, Burghardt R, Safe SH
Carcinogenesis. 1997 18(5):925-33.
Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 105(Suppl 3):675-8.
Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism.
Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1997 138(4):1520-7.
Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl.
Zhao F, Mayura K, Harper N, Safe SH, Phillips TD
Chemosphere. 1997 34(5-7):1605-13.
Inhibition of estrogen-induced activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the MCF-7 human breast cancer and other cell lines transfected with vitellogenin A2 gene promoter constructs.
Nodland KI, Wormke M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 338(1):67-72.
Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.
Safe SH, Zacharewski T
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1997 396(396):133-45.
Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl.
Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 35(1):1-8.
Antiestrogenic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners identified in human serum.
Moore M, Mustain M, Daniel K, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 142(1):160-8.
Role of estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes in estrogen-induced heat shock protein 27 gene expression.
Porter W, Wang F, Wang W, Duan R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1996 10(11):1371-8.
Effects of developmental exposure to indole-3-carbinol or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on reproductive potential of male rat offspring.
Wilker C, Johnson L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 141(1):68-75.
Atypical cytochrome P450 induction profiles in glomerular mesangial cells at the mRNA and enzyme level. Evidence for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and their involvement in benzo[a]pyrene metabolism.
Bowes RC 3rd, Parrish AR, Steinberg MA, Willett KL, Zhao W, Savas U, Jefcoate CR, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 52(4):587-95.
Inhibition of prolactin receptor gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu YF, Sun G, Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 332(1):35-40.
Stimulation of calcium uptake in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Hanneman WH, Legare ME, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Tiffany-Castiglioni E
Toxicology. 1996 112(1):19-28.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on insulin-induced responses in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Liu H, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 138(2):242-50.
Substituted flavones as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists.
Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 51(8):1077-87.
Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells.
Chen I, Safe S, Bjeldanes L
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 51(8):1069-76.
Failure of chloro-S-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogen receptor-mediated responses in vivo and in vitro.
Connor K, Howell J, Chen I, Liu H, Berhane K, Sciarretta C, Safe S, Zacharewski T
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996 30(1):93-101.
Effect of transient expression of the oestrogen receptor on constitutive and inducible CYP1A1 in Hs578T human breast cancer cells.
Wang WL, Thomsen JS, Porter W, Moore M, Safe S
Br J Cancer. 1996 73(3):316-22.
Alkyl polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds as antiestrogens in the female rat uterus: structure-activity studies.
Dickerson R, Keller LH, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 135(2):287-98.
Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells.
Krishnan V, Porter W, Santostefano M, Wang X, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 1995 15(12):6710-9.
Structure-dependent induction of CYP2B by polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Connor K, Safe S, Jefcoate CR, Larsen M
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 50(11):1913-20.
Comparative properties of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex from several human cell lines.
Wang X, Thomsen JS, Santostefano M, Rosengren R, Safe S, Perdew GH
Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 293(3):191-205.
Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum.
Safe S, Washburn K, Zacharewski T, Phillips T
Chemosphere. 1995 31(4):3017-23.
Environmental and dietary estrogens and human health: is there a problem?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 103(4):346-51.
Identification of 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone as a pure aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor antagonist and evidence for more than one form of the nuclear Ah receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 316(1):470-7.
Human chorionic gonadotropin protects Leydig cell function against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in adult rats: role of Leydig cell cytoplasmic volume.
Wilker CE, Welsh TH Jr, Safe SH, Narasimhan TR, Johnson L
Toxicology. 1995 95(1-3):93-102.
Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole: a dietary-derived factor that exhibits both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity.
Liu H, Wormke M, Safe SH, Bjeldanes LF
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 86(23):1758-65.
Development of an in vitro model for investigating the formation of the nuclear Ah receptor complex in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells.
Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 315(2):285-92.
Relative sensitivities of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced Cyp1a-1 and Cyp1a-2 gene expression and immunotoxicity in female B6C3F1 mice.
Narasimhan TR, Craig A, Arellano L, Harper N, Howie L, Menache M, Birnbaum L, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994 23(4):598-607.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for antibodies to TNP-LPS detects alterations in serum immunoglobulins and isotype switching in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Harper N, Connor K, Steinberg M, Safe S
Toxicology. 1994 92(1-3):155-67.
2-Phenylphenanthridinone and related compounds: aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists and suicide inactivators of P4501A1.
Liu H, Santostefano M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 313(2):206-14.
Inhibition of estrogen-induced progesterone receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists.
Harper N, Wang X, Liu H, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994 104(1):47-55.
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and retinoic acid in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Lu Y, Wang X, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994 127(1):1-8.
Effect of ligand structure on formation and DNA binding properties of the transformed rat cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Santosfefano M, Liu H, Wang X, Chaloupka K, Safe S
Chem Res Toxicol. 1994 7(4):544-50.
Estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes mediate estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Krishnan V, Wang X, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1994 269(22):15912-7.
Biphasic modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in serum-deprived rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
Weber TJ, Ou X, Merchant M, Wang X, Safe SH, Ramos KS
J Biochem Toxicol. 1994 9(3):113-20.
Restoration of aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) responsiveness in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by transient expression of the estrogen receptor.
Thomsen JS, Wang X, Hines RN, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1994 15(5):933-7.
Benzo[a]pyrene-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A unique aryl hydrocarbon-nonresponsive clone.
Moore M, Wang X, Lu YF, Wormke M, Craig A, Gerlach JH, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1994 269(16):11751-9.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduces the number, size, and organelle content of Leydig cells in adult rat testes.
Johnson L, Wilker CE, Safe SH, Scott B, Dean DD, White PH
Toxicology. 1994 89(1):49-65.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment.
Safe SH
Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994 24(2):87-149.
Immunosuppressive effects of highly chlorinated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers on T-cell dependent and independent antigens in mice.
Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Dickerson R, Safe S
Toxicology. 1993 85(2-3):123-35.
Synergistic activity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists.
Chaloupka K, Harper N, Krishnan V, Santostefano M, Rodriguez LV, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1993 89(2-3):141-58.
Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated decrease of the nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Wang X, Porter W, Krishnan V, Narasimhan TR, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993 96(1-2):159-66.
6-substituted 3,4-benzocoumarins: a new structural class of inducers and inhibitors of CYP1A1-dependent activity.
Liu H, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 306(1):223-31.
Development of bioassays and approaches for the risk assessment of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1993 101(Suppl 3):317-25.
Potentiation of CYP1A1 gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells cotreated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.
Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Steinberg MA, Wang X, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 305(2):483-8.
Immunotoxic potencies of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.
Harper N, Connor K, Safe S
Toxicology. 1993 80(2-3):217-27.
Mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an Ah receptor antagonist in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Merchant M, Krishnan V, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 120(2):179-85.
Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of highly chlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.
Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Arellano L, Craig A, Dickerson R, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 20(4):496-502.
Comparative potencies of Aroclors 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in male Wistar rats--assessment of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 20(4):456-63.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Krishnan V, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 120(1):55-61.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Rowlands C, Krishnan V, Wang X, Santostefano M, Safe S, Miller WR, Langdon S
Cancer Res. 1993 53(8):1802-7.
Toxicology, structure-function relationship, and human and environmental health impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls: progress and problems.
Safe S
Environ Health Perspect. 1993 100(100):259-68.
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 17 beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Wang X, Krishnan V, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 44(3):251-61.
Effects of cycloheximide on the induction of CYP1A1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three human breast cancer cell lines.
Arellano LO, Wang X, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1993 14(2):219-22.
alpha-Naphthoflavone-induced CYP1A1 gene expression and cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor transformation.
Santostefano M, Merchant M, Arellano L, Morrison V, Denison MS, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 1993 43(2):200-6.
Teratogenicity and immunotoxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in C57BL/6 mice.
Mayura K, Spainhour CB, Howie L, Safe S, Phillips TD
Toxicology. 1993 77(1-2):123-31.
Modulation of protooncogene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by benzo[a]pyrene.
Sadhu DN, Merchant M, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 300(1):124-31.
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of the Ah receptor.
Chaloupka K, Krishnan V, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1992 13(12):2233-9.
A comparison of the mouse versus human aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex: effects of proteolysis.
Wang X, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1992 85(1):79-93.
Reduced Leydig cell volume and function in adult rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin without a significant effect on spermatogenesis.
Johnson L, Dickerson R, Safe SH, Nyberg CL, Lewis RP, Welsh TH Jr
Toxicology. 1992 76(2):103-18.
Mechanism of action of aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists: inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression.
Merchant M, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 298(2):389-94.
Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I responses in MCF-7 cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Liu H, Biegel L, Narasimhan TR, Rowlands C, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 87(1-3):19-28.
Gap junctions in myometrial cell cultures: evidence for modulation by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate.
Dookwah HD, Barhoumi R, Narasimhan TR, Safe SH, Burghardt RC
Biol Reprod. 1992 47(3):397-407.
The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran in chick embryo hepatocytes.
Yao C, Safe S
Toxicol In Vitro. 1992 6(4):373-80.
Development of gel staining techniques for detecting the secretion of procathepsin D (52-kDa protein) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Krishnan V, Narasimhan T, Safe S
Anal Biochem. 1992 204(1):137-42.
Growth inhibitory and antimitogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in T47D human breast cancer cells.
Fernandez P, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1992 61(2-3):185-97.
Kinetics of the association of several tritiated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners with hepatic cytosolic Ah receptor from the Wistar rat.
Rosengren R, Safe S, Bunce NJ
Chem Res Toxicol. 1992 5(3):376-82.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the human C-4II cervical squamous carcinoma cell line.
Wang X, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 43(7):1635-42.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as an antiestrogen in human and rodent cancer cell lines: evidence for the role of the Ah receptor.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Biegel L, Morrison V, Merchant M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 113(2):311-8.
The effect of 6-nitro-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a partial estrogen in the female rat uterus.
Dickerson R, Howie L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 113(1):55-63.
Mechanism of benzo[a]pyrene-induced Cyp1a-1 gene expression in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells: role of the nuclear 6 s and 4 s proteins.
Merchant M, Wang X, Kamps C, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 292(1):250-7.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds as antioestrogens: characterization and mechanism of action.
Safe S, Astroff B, Harris M, Zacharewski T, Dickerson R, Romkes M, Biegel L
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991 69(6):400-9.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on 17 beta-estradiol-induced glucose metabolism in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.
Narasimhan TR, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI
Mol Pharmacol. 1991 40(6):1029-35.
DNA binding properties of the Ah receptor in wild-type and variant mouse hepatoma cells.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Morrison V, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 290(2):362-8.
Effects of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls on mouse liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimhan TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
J Biochem Toxicol. 1991 6(3):229-36.
Evidence for the mechanism of action of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated decrease of nuclear estrogen receptor levels in wild-type and mutant mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 41(12):1931-9.
In situ and in vitro photoaffinity labeling of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor from transformed rodent and human cell lines.
Wang X, Narasimhan TR, Morrison V, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 287(1):186-94.
Inhibition of the 17 beta-estradiol-induced and constitutive expression of the cellular protooncogene c-fos by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the female rat uterus.
Astroff B, Eldridge B, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1991 56(3):305-15.
Neonatal exposure to Aroclor 1254: effects on adult hepatic testosterone hydroxylase activities.
Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH
Xenobiotica. 1991 21(4):481-9.
6-Alkyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as antiestrogens in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1991 69(2):187-97.
Mechanism of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists: characterization of 6-[125I]methyl-8-iodo-1,3-dichlorodibenzofuran-Ah receptor complexes.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Astroff B, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe L, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 284(1):193-200.
Development and validation of bioassays for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
Safe S, Harris M, Zacharewski T
IARC Sci Publ. 1991 (108):147-59.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on cell growth and the secretion of the estrogen-induced 34-, 52- and 160-kDa proteins in human breast cancer cells.
Biegel L, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990 37(5):725-32.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibition of 17 beta-estradiol-induced increases in rat uterine epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity and gene expression.
Astroff B, Rowlands C, Dickerson R, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990 72(3):247-52.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related congeners: mechanistic studies.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Rosengren R, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 105(2):243-53.
Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of polychlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6N mice: quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Howie L, Dickerson R, Davis D, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 105(2):254-63.
The mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an inhibitor of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression.
Merchant M, Arellano L, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990 281(1):84-9.
The structure-dependent effects of heptachlorodibenzofuran isomers in male C57BL/6 mice: immunotoxicity and monooxygenase enzyme induction.
Dickerson R, Howie L, Davis D, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1990 15(2):298-307.
Immunosuppressive activities of polychlorinated biphenyls in C57BL/6N mice: structure-activity relationships as Ah receptor agonists and partial antagonists.
Davis D, Safe S
Toxicology. 1990 63(1):97-111.
Effects of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inducers on mouse hepatic microsomal metabolism of testosterone and alkoxyresorufins.
Kelley M, Womack J, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 39(12):1991-8.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds on the occupied nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Cancer Res. 1990 50(12):3579-84.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as an antiestrogen: effect on rat uterine peroxidase activity.
Astroff B, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 39(3):485-8.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs).
Safe S
Crit Rev Toxicol. 1990 21(1):51-88.
Neonatal modulation of adult rat hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activities by Aroclor 1254 or phenobarbital.
Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH
J Biochem Toxicol. 1990 5(4):203-10.
6-substituted-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists in the rat: structure activity relationships.
Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1989 59(3):285-96.
Development and validation of in vitro induction assays for toxic halogenated aromatic mixtures: a review.
Safe S, Mason G, Sawyer T, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Yao C, Keys B, Farrell K, Holcomb M, Davis D
Toxicol Ind Health. 1989 5(5):757-75.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced porphyria in genetically inbred mice: partial antagonism and mechanistic studies.
Yao C, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 100(2):208-16.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in human breast cancer cell lines and characterization of the Ah receptor.
Harris M, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Zacharewski T, Romkes M, Safe S
Cancer Res. 1989 49(16):4531-5.
Induction of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities in rat hepatoma H-4-IIE cells in culture by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds: mechanistic studies using radiolabeled congeners.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 272(2):344-55.
Dose-response immunotoxicities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Davis D, Safe S
Toxicol Lett. 1989 48(1):35-43.
Partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase by 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran: mechanistic studies.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Astroff B, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 1989 35(5):729-35.
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6J mice.
Biegel L, Harris M, Davis D, Rosengren R, Safe L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 97(3):561-71.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6 mice.
Bannister R, Biegel L, Davis D, Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1989 54(2):139-50.
Induction of glutathione S-transferases in genetically inbred male mice by dietary ethoxyquin hydrochloride.
Makary M, Kim HL, Safe S, Womack J, Ivie GW
Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989 92(2):171-4.
Effects of sesquiterpene lactones on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimham TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
Gen Pharmacol. 1989 20(5):681-7.


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