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Stephen Safe

Distinguished Professor


Phone: (979) 845-5988

Mailstop: 4466

Department: VTPP

Photo of Safe, Stephen


  • D.Phil. Bioorganic Chemistry, Oxford University, Great Britain 1965
  • M.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1963
  • B.S. Chemistry, Queen's University, Canada 1962

Scholarly Interests

Toxicology and molecular biology of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds; molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptor and Ah receptor action and their crosstalk in breast cancer; NR4A1 and Sp proteins as drug targets; long non-coding RNAs


Characterization and Biological Potency of Mono- to Tetra-Halogenated Carbazoles.
Riddell N, Jin UH, Safe S, Cheng Y, Chittim B, Konstantinov A, Parette R, Pena-Abaurrea M, Reiner EJ, Poirier D, Stefanac T, McAlees AJ, McCrindle R
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 49(17):10658-66.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Doddapaneni R, Singh M, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC.
Gandhy SU, Imanirad P, Jin UH, Nair V, Hedrick E, Cheng Y, Corton JC, Kim K, Safe S
Oncotarget. 2015
A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells.
Fan YY, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Wright GA, Safe S, Chapkin RS
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 309(1):.
Enhanced Percutaneous Delivery of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) Methane for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention.
Boakye CH, Shah PP, Doddapaneni R, Patel AR, Safe S, Singh M
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015 11(7):1269-81.
Dietary γ-Tocopherol Rich Mixture Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Estrogen Metabolism, Antioxidant Response and PPARγ.
Das Gupta S, Sae-Tan S, Wahler J, So JY, Bak MJ, Cheng LC, Lee MJ, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Shull JD, Safe S, Yang CS, Suh N
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015
Evaluation of self-emulsified DIM-14 in dogs for oral bioavailability and in Nu/nu mice bearing stem cell lung tumor models for anticancer activity.
Patel AR, Doddapaneni R, Andey T, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M
J Control Release. 2015 213(213):18-26.
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma.
Hedrick E, Lee SO, Kim G, Abdelrahim M, Jin UH, Safe S, Abudayyeh A
PLoS One. 2015 10(6):.
The Nurr1 Activator 1,1-Bis(3'-Indolyl)-1-(p-Chlorophenyl)Methane Blocks Inflammatory Gene Expression in BV-2 Microglial Cells by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor κB.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Jorgensen BA, Phillips AT, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Mol Pharmacol. 2015 87(6):1021-34.
The long non-coding RNA HOTTIP enhances pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration.
Cheng Y, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Corton JC, Safe S
Oncotarget. 2015 6(13):10840-52.
Nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family - orphans no more.
Safe S, Jin UH, Morpurgo B, Abudayyeh A, Singh M, Tjalkens RB
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Tryptophan Metabolites in Young Adult Mouse Colonocytes.
Cheng Y, Jin UH, Allred CD, Jayraman A, Chapkin RS, Safe S
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015
Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer--letter.
Safe S
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 8(4):338.
Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Miller JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB
Toxicol Sci. 2015 143(2):360-73.
The transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 regulates EZH2 through a MicroRNA-ZBTB4-specificity protein signaling axis.
Yang WS, Chadalapaka G, Cho SG, Lee SO, Jin UH, Jutooru I, Choi K, Leung YK, Ho SM, Safe S, Kim K
Neoplasia. 2014 16(12):1059-69.
Mechanism of Metformin-dependent Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer: ROLE OF SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Nair V, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2014 289(40):27692-701.
Diindolylmethane Analogs Bind NR4A1 and Are NR4A1 Antagonists in Colon Cancer Cells.
Lee SO, Li X, Hedrick E, Jin UH, Tjalkens RB, Backos DS, Li L, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2014 28(10):1729-39.
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1 as a therapeutic target.
Safe S, Imanirad P, Sreevalsan S, Nair V, Jutooru I
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014 18(7):759-69.
MicroRNA-26b represses colon cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting lymphoid enhancer factor 1 expression.
Zhang Z, Kim K, Li X, Moreno M, Sharp T, Goodheart MJ, Safe S, Dupuy AJ, Amendt BA
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 13(7):1942-51.
Mechanism of action of phenethylisothiocyanate and other reactive oxygen species-inducing anticancer agents.
Jutooru I, Guthrie AS, Chadalapaka G, Pathi S, Kim K, Burghardt R, Jin UH, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 2014 34(13):2382-95.
Theranostic tumor homing nanocarriers for the treatment of lung cancer.
Patel AR, Chougule MB, Lim E, Francis KP, Safe S, Singh M
Nanomedicine. 2014 10(5):1053-63.
Mechanistic relationships between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures.
Phillips TD, Richardson M, Cheng YS, He L, McDonald TJ, Cizmas LH, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Wang F, Moorthy B, Zhou GD
Arch Toxicol. 2014
Microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolites and their aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent agonist and antagonist activities.
Jin UH, Lee SO, Sridharan G, Lee K, Davidson LA, Jayaraman A, Chapkin RS, Alaniz R, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2014 85(5):777-88.
The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Jin UH, Kang JH, Kim SB, Guthrie AS, Sreevalsan S, Lee JS, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2014 12(4):527-38.
Ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) induce apoptosis and necrosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Goldberg AA, Titorenko VI, Beach A, Abdelbaqi K, Safe S, Sanderson JT
Invest New Drugs. 2014 32(1):25-36.
Minireview: role of orphan nuclear receptors in cancer and potential as drug targets.
Safe S, Jin UH, Hedrick E, Reeder A, Lee SO
Mol Endocrinol. 2014 28(2):157-72.
Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.
Nair V, Pathi S, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2013 34(12):2870-9.
Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic) methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1).
Boakye CH, Doddapaneni R, Shah PP, Patel AR, Godugu C, Safe S, Katiyar SK, Singh M
PLoS One. 2013 8(8):.
Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?
Vrangbæk K, Sørensen LM
Scand J Public Health. 2013 41(6):616-22.
miR-150 blocks MLL-AF9-associated leukemia through oncogene repression.
Bousquet M, Zhuang G, Meng C, Ying W, Cheruku PS, Shie AT, Wang S, Ge G, Wong P, Wang G, Safe S, Zhou B
Mol Cancer Res. 2013 11(8):912-22.
Betulinic acid decreases ER-negative breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: role of Sp transcription factors and microRNA-27a:ZBTB10.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Noratto GD, Li X, Angel-Morales G, Bertoldi MC, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2013 52(8):591-602.
Investigation of macrophage polarization using bone marrow derived macrophages.
Ying W, Cheruku PS, Bazer FW, Safe SH, Zhou B
J Vis Exp. 2013 (76).
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.
van den Berg M, Denison MS, Birnbaum LS, Devito MJ, Fiedler H, Falandysz J, Rose M, Schrenk D, Safe S, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tysklind M, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 2013 133(2):197-208.
Neuroprotective efficacy and pharmacokinetic behavior of novel anti-inflammatory para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
De Miranda BR, Miller JA, Hansen RJ, Lunghofer PJ, Safe S, Gustafson DL, Colagiovanni D, Tjalkens RB
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 345(1):125-38.
HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer.
Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, Kim S, Safe S
Oncogene. 2013 32(13):1616-25.
Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a
Del Follo-Martinez A, Banerjee N, Li X, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
Nutr Cancer. 2013 65(3):494-504.
Inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma cell and tumor growth by targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Pathi S, Kim K, Chen C, Crose L, Linardic C, Safe S
Int J Cancer. 2013 132(4):795-806.
Small molecule tolfenamic acid inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse model for prostate cancer.
Sankpal UT, Abdelrahim M, Connelly SF, Lee CM, Madero-Visbal R, Colon J, Smith J, Safe S, Maliakal P, Basha R
Prostate. 2012 72(15):1648-58.
Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors.
Pathi S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Nair V, Lee SO, Safe S
PLoS One. 2012 7(10):.
Induction of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 in prostate cancer cells by drug-induced targeting of microRNA-17-92/106b-25 clusters.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Pathi SS, Jin UH, Lee JS, Park YY, Cho SG, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(9):1852-62.
The nuclear receptor TR3 regulates mTORC1 signaling in lung cancer cells expressing wild-type p53.
Lee SO, Andey T, Jin UH, Kim K, Singh M, Safe S
Oncogene. 2012 31(27):3265-76.
Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model.
Schulz VJ, Smit JJ, Huijgen V, Bol-Schoenmakers M, van Roest M, Kruijssen LJ, Fiechter D, Hassing I, Bleumink R, Safe S, van Duursen MB, van den Berg M, Pieters RH
Toxicol Sci. 2012 128(1):92-102.
Betulinic Acid Targets YY1 and ErbB2 through Cannabinoid Receptor-Dependent Disruption of MicroRNA-27a:ZBTB10 in Breast Cancer.
Liu X, Jutooru I, Lei P, Kim K, Lee SO, Brents LK, Prather PL, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(7):1421-31.
A novel regulator of macrophage activation: miR-223 in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation.
Zhuang G, Meng C, Guo X, Cheruku PS, Shi L, Xu H, Li H, Wang G, Evans AR, Safe S, Wu C, Zhou B
Circulation. 2012 125(23):2892-903.
The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.
Barchowsky A, Buckley LA, Carlson GP, Fitsanakis VA, Ford SM, Genter MB, Germolec DR, Leavens TL, Lehman-McKeeman LD, Safe SH, Sulentic CE, Eidemiller BJ
Toxicol Sci. 2012 127(2):331-8.
Chemopreventive effects of tolfenamic acid against esophageal tumorigenesis in rats.
Maliakal P, Abdelrahim M, Sankpal UT, Maliakal C, Baker CH, Safe S, Herrera LJ, Abudayyeh A, Kaja S, Basha R
Invest New Drugs. 2012 30(3):853-61.
Pharmacokinetic evaluation and in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of novel methylene-substituted 3,3' diindolylmethane (DIM).
Patel AR, Spencer SD, Chougule MB, Safe S, Singh M
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012 46(1-2):8-16.
Unifying Mechanisms of Action of the Anticancer Activities of Triterpenoids and Synthetic Analogs.
Safe SH, Prather PL, Brents LK, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012
Identification of oncogenic microRNA-17-92/ZBTB4/specificity protein axis in breast cancer.
Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Lee SO, Yamada D, Sastre-Garau X, Defossez PA, Park YY, Lee JS, Safe S
Oncogene. 2012 31(8):1034-44.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induce microRNA-335 expression and inhibit lung metastasis of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Kim K, Jin UH, Pfent C, Cao H, Amendt B, Liu X, Wilson-Robles H, Safe S
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 11(1):108-18.
PAH particles perturb prenatal processes and phenotypes: protection from deficits in object discrimination afforded by dampening of brain oxidoreductase following in utero exposure to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene.
Li Z, Chadalapaka G, Ramesh A, Khoshbouei H, Maguire M, Safe S, Rhoades RE, Clark R, Jules G, McCallister M, Aschner M, Hood DB
Toxicol Sci. 2012 125(1):233-47.
Reconstruction of nuclear receptor network reveals that NR2E3 is a novel upstream regulator of ESR1 in breast cancer.
Park YY, Kim K, Kim SB, Hennessy BT, Kim SM, Park ES, Lim JY, Li J, Lu Y, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Jeong W, Mills GB, Safe S, Lee JS
EMBO Mol Med. 2012 4(1):52-67.
Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells.
Pathi SS, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
Nutr Cancer. 2011 63(7):1133-42.
Inhibition of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 in thyroid cancer cells by drugs that decrease specificity proteins.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lee SO, Lei P, Jin UH, Sherman SI, Santarpia L, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2011 50(9):655-67.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos E, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, Safe S, Parrish AR, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 253(1):45-56.
MDM2 regulates estrogen receptor a and estrogen responsiveness in breast cancer cells.
Kim K, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Lee SO, Liu X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2011 46(2):67-79.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a: ZBTB10-specificity protein pathway.
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2011 9(2):195-202.
GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a:ZBTB10-specificty protein pathway
Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadlapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2011 9(2):195-202.
Tolfenamic acid decreases c-Met expression through Sp proteins degradation and inhibits lung cancer cells growth and tumor formation in orthotopic mice.
Colon J, Basha MR, Madero-Visbal R, Konduri S, Baker CH, Herrera LJ, Safe S, Sheikh-Hamad D, Abudayyeh A, Alvarado B, Abdelrahim M
Invest New Drugs. 2011 29(1):41-51.
Targeting NR4A1 (TR3) in cancer cells and tumors.
Lee SO, Li X, Khan S, Safe S
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2011 15(2):195-206.
Therapeutic applications of NSAIDS in cancer: special emphasis on tolfenamic acid.
Basha R, Baker CH, Sankpal UT, Ahmad S, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abdelrahim M
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011 3(3):797-805.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce autophagic cell death in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S
BMC Cancer. 2010 10(10):669.
Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer.
Ichite N, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M
Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 9(11):3003-14.
Toxicological and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
Roberts RA, Smith RA, Safe S, Szabo C, Tjalkens RB, Robertson FM
Toxicology. 2010 276(2):85-94.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me), a derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.
Pang X, Zhang L, Wu Y, Lin L, Li J, Qu W, Safe S, Liu M
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 335(1):172-9.
Inactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor TR3/Nur77 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth.
Lee SO, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Kim K, Wang H, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2010 70(17):6824-36.
Methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate decreases specificity protein transcription factors and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth: role of microRNA-27a.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Abdelrahim M, Basha MR, Samudio I, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2010 78(2):226-36.
Arsenic trioxide downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and inhibits bladder cancer cell and tumor growth.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Lei P, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Exp Cell Res. 2010 316(13):2174-88.
Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its coactivator DRIP205 in cellular responses to CDDO (RTA-401) in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Tsao T, Kornblau S, Safe S, Watt JC, Ruvolo V, Chen W, Qiu Y, Coombes KR, Ju Z, Abdelrahim M, Schober W, Ling X, Kardassis D, Meyer C, Schimmer A, Kantarjian H, Andreeff M, Konopleva M
Cancer Res. 2010 70(12):4949-60.
MicroRNA-27a Indirectly Regulates Estrogen Receptor {alpha} Expression and Hormone Responsiveness in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Li X, Mertens-Talcott SU, Zhang S, Kim K, Ball J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2010 151(6):2462-73.
Drugs that target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2010 8(5):739-50.
Xenoestrogen-induced regulation of EZH2 and histone methylation via estrogen receptor signaling to PI3K/AKT.
Bredfeldt TG, Greathouse KL, Safe SH, Hung MC, Bedford MT, Walker CL
Mol Endocrinol. 2010 24(5):993-1006.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells.
Guo J, Chintharlapalli S, Lee SO, Cho SD, Lei P, Papineni S, Safe S
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 66(1):141-50.
Activation of nerve growth factor-induced B alpha by methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes in bladder cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
Cho SD, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Yoon K, Kamat AM, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 2010 77(3):396-404.
Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease.
da Costa CA, Sunyach C, Giaime E, West A, Corti O, Brice A, Safe S, Abou-Sleiman PM, Wood NW, Takahashi H, Goldberg MS, Shen J, Checler F
Nat Cell Biol. 2009 11(11):1370-5.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy.
Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe S
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 16(3):835-44.
Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative.
Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S
Mol Carcinog. 2009 48(8):692-702.
Tolfenamic acid inhibits esophageal cancer through repression of specificity proteins and c-Met.
Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lee SO, Burghardt R, Abudayyeh A, Baker C, Herrera L, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2009 30(7):1193-201.
p21 expression is induced by activation of nuclear nerve growth factor-induced Balpha (Nur77) in pancreatic cancer cells.
Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Liu S, Papineni S, Cho SD, Yoon K, Safe S
Mol Cancer Res. 2009 7(7):1169-78.
Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression.
Konduri S, Colon J, Baker CH, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abudayyeh A, Basha MR, Abdelrahim M
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 8(3):533-42.
Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines.
Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe S, Burghardt RC
J Toxicol Sci. 2009 34(1):13-25.
In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation.
Wu F, Xu R, Kim K, Martin J, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2008 149(11):5696-705.
Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3'-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs.
Safe S, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S
Cancer Lett. 2008 269(2):326-38.
Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R 3rd, Li X, Safe S
Cancer Res. 2008 68(13):5345-54.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase.
Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2008 29(6):1139-47.
Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro.
Pacheco-Palencia LA, Talcott ST, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 56(10):3593-600.
1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways.
Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R 3rd, Khan S, Safe S
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 109(2):273-83.
Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens.
Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 110(1-2):104-15.
Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives.
Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 18(8):2633-9.
Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay.
Zhang S, Rowlands C, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 227(2):196-206.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter W, Metz R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2008 22(2):388-402.
2-cyano-lup-1-en-3-oxo-20-oic acid, a cyano derivative of betulinic acid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells.
Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Liu S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Cho SD, Murthy RS, You Y, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 2007 28(11):2337-46.
Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.
Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr
Carcinogenesis. 2007 28(10):2227-35.
Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 223(1):28-38.
Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes.
Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe S
Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 20(7):1234-7.
The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE
Toxicol Sci. 2006 93(2):223-41.
Molecular mechanism of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor/Sp1 cross talk in breast cancer cells.
Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Liu S, Kim K, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2006 20(9):2199-214.
Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells.
Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe S, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Lett. 2006 165(2):133-41.
The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer.
Safe S, Papineni S
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 27(8):447-54.
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Vanderlaag K, Porter W, Metz RP, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2006 147(7):3285-95.
Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins.
Higgins KJ, Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Yoon K, Safe S
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 345(1):292-301.
Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and induction of cell death by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)methane (DIM) and 5,5'-dibromoDIM.
Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
Cancer Lett. 2006 236(2):198-212.
Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner.
Lee SH, Yamaguchi K, Kim JS, Eling TE, Safe S, Park Y, Baek SJ
Carcinogenesis. 2006 27(5):972-81.
RNAi and cancer: Implications and applications.
Abdelrahim M, Safe S, Baker C, Abudayyeh A
J RNAi Gene Silencing. 2006 2(1):136-45.
Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements.
Fleming JG, Spencer TE, Safe SH, Bazer FW
Endocrinology. 2006 147(2):899-911.
Role of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-induced responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Zhang S, Li X, Burghardt R, Smith R 3rd, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2005 35(3):433-47.
Sp transcription factor family and its role in cancer.
Safe S, Abdelrahim M
Eur J Cancer. 2005 41(16):2438-48.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) directly targets mitochondrial glutathione to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.
Samudio I, Konopleva M, Hail N Jr, Shi YX, McQueen T, Hsu T, Evans R, Honda T, Gribble GW, Sporn M, Gilbert HF, Safe S, Andreeff M
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(43):36273-82.
Activation of Nur77 by selected 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induces apoptosis through nuclear pathways.
Chintharlapalli S, Burghardt R, Papineni S, Ramaiah S, Yoon K, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(26):24903-14.
Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005 16(4):139-44.
DRIP150 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells is independent of LXXLL motifs.
Lee JE, Kim K, Sacchettini JC, Smith CV, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2005 280(10):8819-30.
Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem.
Safe S
Toxicology. 2004 205(1-2):3-10.
Paralogues of porcine aromatase cytochrome P450: a novel hydroxylase activity is associated with the survival of a duplicated gene.
Corbin CJ, Mapes SM, Marcos J, Shackleton CH, Morrow D, Safe S, Wise T, Ford JJ, Conley AJ
Endocrinology. 2004 145(5):2157-64.
Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation through interaction with Sp proteins.
Safe S, Kim K
Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2004 77(77):1-36.
Comparative in vitro and in vivo genotoxicities of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, manufactured gas plant residue (MGP), and MGP fractions.
Cizmas L, Zhou GD, Safe SH, McDonald TJ, Zhu L, Donnelly KC
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004 43(3):159-68.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth and hormone-induced transactivation.
Morrow D, Qin C, Smith R 3rd, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 88(1):27-36.
Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context.
Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 111(16):1877-82.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes.
Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Cell Biol. 2003 23(6):1843-55.
Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, McDonnell D
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 110(Suppl 6):925-9.
Estrogen regulation of transferrin gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Vyhlidal C, Li X, Safe S
J Mol Endocrinol. 2002 29(3):305-17.
Hypoxia induces proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells.
Stoner M, Saville B, Wormke M, Dean D, Burghardt R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 16(10):2231-42.
Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2002 68(2):444-50.
Doxycycline induces expression of P glycoprotein in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.
Mealey KL, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Kochevar DT
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 46(3):755-61.
Cooperative coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells by SNURF and TATA-binding protein.
Saville B, Poukka H, Wormke M, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ, Stoner M, Samudio I, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2002 277(4):2485-97.
Transcriptional activation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha gene expression in MCF-7 cells by 17 beta-estradiol.
Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Stoner M, Chen I, Kladde M, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2001 142(3):1000-8.
Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats.
McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001 66(2):147-57.
Toxicology of environmental estrogens.
Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnellc D
Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001 13(4):307-15.
Bisphenol A and related endocrine disruptors.
Safe S
Toxicol Sci. 2000 56(2):251-2.
Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HEC1A endometrial cancer cells through interactions of estrogen receptor alpha and Sp3 proteins.
Stoner M, Wang F, Wormke M, Nguyen T, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Marme D, Finkenzeller G, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 275(30):22769-79.
Transcriptional activation of thymidylate synthase by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Xie W, Duan R, Chen I, Samudio I, Safe S
Endocrinology. 2000 141(7):2439-49.
Mechanisms of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor crosstalk in human breast cancer cells.
Safe S, Wormke M, Samudio I
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2000 5(3):295-306.
Endocrine disruptors and human health--is there a problem? An update.
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 108(6):487-93.
Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines.
Yoon K, Pellaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000 162(1-2):211-20.
Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by growth factors.
Wang F, Duan R, Chirgwin J, Safe SH
J Mol Endocrinol. 2000 24(2):193-202.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and crosstalk in human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells.
Wormke M, Castro-Rivera E, Chen I, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 72(5):197-207.
Ligand-, cell-, and estrogen receptor subtype (alpha/beta)-dependent activation at GC-rich (Sp1) promoter elements.
Saville B, Wormke M, Wang F, Nguyen T, Enmark E, Kuiper G, Gustafsson JA, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 2000 275(8):5379-87.
Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line.
Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC
Toxicol Sci. 2000 53(2):264-70.
Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells.
Dong L, Wang W, Wang F, Stoner M, Reed JC, Harigai M, Samudio I, Kladde MP, Vyhlidal C, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1999 274(45):32099-107.
Symposium on mechanisms of action of naturally occurring anticarcinogens.
Safe S, Wargovich MJ, Lamartiniere CA, Mukhtar H
Toxicol Sci. 1999 52(1):1-8.
Transcriptional activation of c-fos protooncogene by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition.
Duan R, Porter W, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Kladde M, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1999 13(9):1511-21.
Development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of breast cancer.
Safe S, Qin C, McDougal A
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1999 8(9):1385-96.
Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness of ECC-1 endometrial cancer cells.
Castro-Rivera E, Wormke M, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 150(1-2):11-21.
Methods for xenoestrogen testing.
Safe S, Connor K, Gaido K
Toxicol Lett. 1998 102-103:665-70.
Ah receptor agonists as endocrine disruptors: antiestrogenic activity and mechanisms.
Safe S, Wang F, Porter W, Duan R, McDougal A
Toxicol Lett. 1998 102-103:343-7.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane.
Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S
Carcinogenesis. 1998 19(9):1631-9.
Ah receptor-independent induction of CYP1A2 gene expression in genetically inbred mice.
Gupta M, Miggens J, Parrish A, Womack J, Ramos KS, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein LS, Holtzapple C, Stanker L, Safe SH
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998 5(3):205-13.
Inhibition of CYP1A1-dependent activity by the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene.
Willett KL, Randerath K, Zhou GD, Safe SH
Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 55(6):831-9.
Estrogen- and antiestrogen-responsiveness of HEC1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in culture.
Castro-Rivera E, Safe S
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 64(5-6):287-95.
Interactions between hormones and chemicals in breast cancer.
Safe SH
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998 38(38):121-58.
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons suppress CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices.
Hong SJ, Grover CA, Safe SH, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Frye GD
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 148(1):7-13.
Additive estrogenic activities of a binary mixture of 2',4',6'-trichloro- and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol.
Ramamoorthy K, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Chen I, Safe S, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 147(1):93-100.
Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor.
Porter W, Saville B, Hoivik D, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1997 11(11):1569-80.
Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) nonresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells is associated with expression of a variant arnt protein.
Wilson CL, Thomsen J, Hoivik DJ, Wormke MT, Stanker L, Holtzapple C, Safe SH
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 346(1):65-73.
Human exposure to endocrine-active chemicals: hazard assessment problems.
Safe S, Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Maness S
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1997 26(1 Pt 1):52-8.
Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships.
Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 145(1):111-23.
Characterization of the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for evaluation of environmental samples containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Willett KL, Gardinali PR, Sericano JL, Wade TL, Safe SH
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1997 32(4):442-8.
Mechanism of inhibition of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell growth by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Wang WL, Porter W, Burghardt R, Safe SH
Carcinogenesis. 1997 18(5):925-33.
Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 105(Suppl 3):675-8.
Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism.
Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe S
Endocrinology. 1997 138(4):1520-7.
Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer.
Safe SH, Zacharewski T
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1997 396(396):133-45.
Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl.
Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 35(1):1-8.
Antiestrogenic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners identified in human serum.
Moore M, Mustain M, Daniel K, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 142(1):160-8.
Role of estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes in estrogen-induced heat shock protein 27 gene expression.
Porter W, Wang F, Wang W, Duan R, Safe S
Mol Endocrinol. 1996 10(11):1371-8.
Atypical cytochrome P450 induction profiles in glomerular mesangial cells at the mRNA and enzyme level. Evidence for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and their involvement in benzo[a]pyrene metabolism.
Bowes RC 3rd, Parrish AR, Steinberg MA, Willett KL, Zhao W, Savas U, Jefcoate CR, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 52(4):587-95.
Stimulation of calcium uptake in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Hanneman WH, Legare ME, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Tiffany-Castiglioni E
Toxicology. 1996 112(1):19-28.
Substituted flavones as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists.
Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 51(8):1077-87.
Failure of chloro-S-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogen receptor-mediated responses in vivo and in vitro.
Connor K, Howell J, Chen I, Liu H, Berhane K, Sciarretta C, Safe S, Zacharewski T
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996 30(1):93-101.
Structure-dependent induction of CYP2B by polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Connor K, Safe S, Jefcoate CR, Larsen M
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 50(11):1913-20.
Comparative properties of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex from several human cell lines.
Wang X, Thomsen JS, Santostefano M, Rosengren R, Safe S, Perdew GH
Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 293(3):191-205.
Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum.
Safe S, Washburn K, Zacharewski T, Phillips T
Chemosphere. 1995 31(4):3017-23.
Environmental and dietary estrogens and human health: is there a problem?
Safe SH
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 103(4):346-51.
Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole: a dietary-derived factor that exhibits both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity.
Liu H, Wormke M, Safe SH, Bjeldanes LF
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 86(23):1758-65.
Relative sensitivities of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced Cyp1a-1 and Cyp1a-2 gene expression and immunotoxicity in female B6C3F1 mice.
Narasimhan TR, Craig A, Arellano L, Harper N, Howie L, Menache M, Birnbaum L, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994 23(4):598-607.
Effect of ligand structure on formation and DNA binding properties of the transformed rat cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Santosfefano M, Liu H, Wang X, Chaloupka K, Safe S
Chem Res Toxicol. 1994 7(4):544-50.
Benzo[a]pyrene-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A unique aryl hydrocarbon-nonresponsive clone.
Moore M, Wang X, Lu YF, Wormke M, Craig A, Gerlach JH, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S
J Biol Chem. 1994 269(16):11751-9.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduces the number, size, and organelle content of Leydig cells in adult rat testes.
Johnson L, Wilker CE, Safe SH, Scott B, Dean DD, White PH
Toxicology. 1994 89(1):49-65.
Synergistic activity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists.
Chaloupka K, Harper N, Krishnan V, Santostefano M, Rodriguez LV, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1993 89(2-3):141-58.
Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated decrease of the nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Wang X, Porter W, Krishnan V, Narasimhan TR, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993 96(1-2):159-66.
6-substituted 3,4-benzocoumarins: a new structural class of inducers and inhibitors of CYP1A1-dependent activity.
Liu H, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 306(1):223-31.
Mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an Ah receptor antagonist in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Merchant M, Krishnan V, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993 120(2):179-85.
Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of highly chlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.
Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Arellano L, Craig A, Dickerson R, Safe S
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1993 20(4):496-502.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Rowlands C, Krishnan V, Wang X, Santostefano M, Safe S, Miller WR, Langdon S
Cancer Res. 1993 53(8):1802-7.
Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 17 beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Wang X, Krishnan V, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 44(3):251-61.
alpha-Naphthoflavone-induced CYP1A1 gene expression and cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor transformation.
Santostefano M, Merchant M, Arellano L, Morrison V, Denison MS, Safe S
Mol Pharmacol. 1993 43(2):200-6.
Teratogenicity and immunotoxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in C57BL/6 mice.
Mayura K, Spainhour CB, Howie L, Safe S, Phillips TD
Toxicology. 1993 77(1-2):123-31.
Modulation of protooncogene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by benzo[a]pyrene.
Sadhu DN, Merchant M, Safe SH, Ramos KS
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 300(1):124-31.
A comparison of the mouse versus human aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex: effects of proteolysis.
Wang X, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S
Chem Biol Interact. 1992 85(1):79-93.
Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I responses in MCF-7 cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds.
Liu H, Biegel L, Narasimhan TR, Rowlands C, Safe S
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 87(1-3):19-28.
Gap junctions in myometrial cell cultures: evidence for modulation by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate.
Dookwah HD, Barhoumi R, Narasimhan TR, Safe SH, Burghardt RC
Biol Reprod. 1992 47(3):397-407.
Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the human C-4II cervical squamous carcinoma cell line.
Wang X, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S
Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 43(7):1635-42.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as an antiestrogen in human and rodent cancer cell lines: evidence for the role of the Ah receptor.
Zacharewski T, Harris M, Biegel L, Morrison V, Merchant M, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 113(2):311-8.
The effect of 6-nitro-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a partial estrogen in the female rat uterus.
Dickerson R, Howie L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 113(1):55-63.
Mechanism of benzo[a]pyrene-induced Cyp1a-1 gene expression in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells: role of the nuclear 6 s and 4 s proteins.
Merchant M, Wang X, Kamps C, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 292(1):250-7.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds as antioestrogens: characterization and mechanism of action.
Safe S, Astroff B, Harris M, Zacharewski T, Dickerson R, Romkes M, Biegel L
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991 69(6):400-9.
DNA binding properties of the Ah receptor in wild-type and variant mouse hepatoma cells.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Morrison V, Zacharewski T, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 290(2):362-8.
Effects of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls on mouse liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimhan TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
J Biochem Toxicol. 1991 6(3):229-36.
Mechanism of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists: characterization of 6-[125I]methyl-8-iodo-1,3-dichlorodibenzofuran-Ah receptor complexes.
Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Astroff B, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe L, Safe S
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 284(1):193-200.
Development and validation of bioassays for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.
Safe S, Harris M, Zacharewski T
IARC Sci Publ. 1991 (108):147-59.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related congeners: mechanistic studies.
Harris M, Zacharewski T, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Rosengren R, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 105(2):243-53.
Development and validation of in vitro induction assays for toxic halogenated aromatic mixtures: a review.
Safe S, Mason G, Sawyer T, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Yao C, Keys B, Farrell K, Holcomb M, Davis D
Toxicol Ind Health. 1989 5(5):757-75.
Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in human breast cancer cell lines and characterization of the Ah receptor.
Harris M, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Zacharewski T, Romkes M, Safe S
Cancer Res. 1989 49(16):4531-5.
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6J mice.
Biegel L, Harris M, Davis D, Rosengren R, Safe L, Safe S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 97(3):561-71.
6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6 mice.
Bannister R, Biegel L, Davis D, Astroff B, Safe S
Toxicology. 1989 54(2):139-50.
Induction of glutathione S-transferases in genetically inbred male mice by dietary ethoxyquin hydrochloride.
Makary M, Kim HL, Safe S, Womack J, Ivie GW
Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989 92(2):171-4.
Effects of sesquiterpene lactones on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Narasimham TR, Kim HL, Safe SH
Gen Pharmacol. 1989 20(5):681-7.

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