Stephen  Safe

Stephen Safe

Distinguished Professor
Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology

Phone: 979.845.5988
TAMU Mailstop: 4466
Biosketch/CV/Resume: Stephen Safe

Research and Scholarly Interests

The development of novel mechanism-based anticancer drugs which target the nuclear orphan receptors (NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3), the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors

Education

  • B.S., Queen's University, Canada, 1962
  • M.S., Queen's University, Canada, 1963
  • D.Phil., Oxford University, Great Britain, 1965

Molecular & Cellular Oncology Laboratory (Safe Lab)

  • Environmental Health
  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology

Stephen Safe is accepting trainees of these groups:

  • Graduate Students
  • Non-Thesis Masters
  • Postdoctoral Fellow
  • Undergraduate Scholars

Google Scholar

PubMed

  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lei P, Pathi S, Safe S (2011). Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors. BMC CANCER. 11, 371
  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos E, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, Safe S, Parrish AR, Burghardt RC (2011). Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 45-56
  • Kim K, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Lee SO, Liu X, Safe S (2011). MDM2 regulates estrogen receptor a and estrogen responsiveness in breast cancer cells. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 2, 67-79
  • Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S (2011). GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a: ZBTB10-specificity protein pathway. MOL CANCER RES. 2, 195-202
  • Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S (2010). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induce autophagic cell death in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. BMC CANCER. 10, 669
  • Safe S (2010). 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters. TOXICOL SCI. 1, 1-3
  • Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Lei P, Safe S (2010). Inhibition of NFkappaB and pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by curcumin is dependent on specificity protein down-regulation. J BIOL CHEM. 33, 25332-44
  • Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Abdelrahim M, Basha MR, Samudio I, Konopleva M, Andreeff M, Safe S (2010). Methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate decreases specificity protein transcription factors and inhibits pancreatic tumor growth: role of microRNA-27a. MOL PHARMACOL. 2, 226-36
  • Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Lei P, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S (2010). Arsenic trioxide downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and inhibits bladder cancer cell and tumor growth. EXP CELL RES. 13, 2174-88
  • Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Burghardt R, Safe S (2010). Drugs that target specificity proteins downregulate epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells. MOL CANCER RES. 5, 739-50
  • Li X, Mertens-Talcott SU, Zhang S, Kim K, Ball J, Safe S (2010). MicroRNA-27a Indirectly Regulates Estrogen Receptor {alpha} Expression and Hormone Responsiveness in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 6, 2462-73
  • Sreevalsan S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Walker M, Safe S (2009). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-bromophenyl)methane and related compounds repress survivin and decrease gamma-radiation-induced survivin in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. INT J ONCOL. 5, 1191-9
  • Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Lee SO, Burghardt R, Abudayyeh A, Baker C, Herrera L, Safe S (2009). Tolfenamic acid inhibits esophageal cancer through repression of specificity proteins and c-Met. CARCINOGENESIS. 7, 1193-201
  • Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe S, Burghardt RC (2009). Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines. J TOXICOL SCI. 1, 13-25
  • Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S (2009). Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative. MOL CARCINOG. 8, 692-702
  • Safe S, Kim K (2008). Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 5, 263-75
  • Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Smith R 3rd, Li X, Safe S (2008). Curcumin decreases specificity protein expression in bladder cancer cells. CANCER RES. 13, 5345-54
  • Safe S, Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S (2008). Cancer chemotherapy with indole-3-carbinol, bis(3'-indolyl)methane and synthetic analogs. CANCER LETT. 2, 326-38
  • Pacheco-Palencia LA, Talcott ST, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S (2008). Absorption and biological activity of phytochemical-rich extracts from açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp and oil in vitro. J AGRIC FOOD CHEM. 10, 3593-600
  • Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S (2008). Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives. BIOORG MED CHEM LETT. 8, 2633-9
  • Zhang S, Rowlands C, Safe S (2008). Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 196-206
  • Mertens-Talcott SU, Chintharlapalli S, Li X, Safe S (2007). The oncogenic microRNA-27a targets genes that regulate specificity protein transcription factors and the G2-M checkpoint in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. CANCER RES. 22, 11001-11
  • Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter W, Metz R, Safe S (2008). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 2, 388-402
  • Safe SH (1998). Hazard and risk assessment of chemical mixtures using the toxic equivalency factor approach. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. Suppl 4, 1051-8
  • Papineni S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S (2008). Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18 beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. MOL PHARMACOL. 2, 553-65
  • Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Wu Q, Safe S (2007). Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 4, 289-304
  • Vanderlaag K, Su Y, Frankel AE, Grage H, Smith R 3rd, Khan S, Safe S (2008). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells by activation of multiple pathways. BREAST CANCER RES TREAT. 2, 273-83
  • Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe S (2007). Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 28-38
  • Lee J, Safe S (2007). Coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)/Sp1 by vitamin D receptor interacting protein 150 (DRIP150). ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 200-10
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S (2007). 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, and decrease the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent pathways. MOL PHARMACOL. 2, 558-69
  • Safe S, Papineni S (2006). The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer. TRENDS PHARMACOL SCI. 8, 447-54
  • Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe S (2006). Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes. TOXICOL IN VITRO. 7, 1234-7
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S (2006). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent pathways. MOL CANCER THER. 5, 1362-70
  • Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Liu S, Kim K, Safe S (2006). Molecular mechanism of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor/Sp1 cross talk in breast cancer cells. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 9, 2199-214
  • Ru Lee W, Chen CC, Liu S, Safe S (2006). 17beta-estradiol (E2) induces cdc25A gene expression in breast cancer cells by genomic and non-genomic pathways. J CELL BIOCHEM. 1, 209-20
  • Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe S, Burghardt RC (2006). Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells. TOXICOL LETT. 2, 133-41
  • Li X, Zhang S, Safe S (2006). Activation of kinase pathways in MCF-7 cells by 17beta-estradiol and structurally diverse estrogenic compounds. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 2-3, 122-32
  • Zhang S, Li X, Burghardt R, Smith R 3rd, Safe SH (2005). Role of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-induced responses in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 3, 433-47
  • Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S (2006). Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and induction of cell death by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)methane (DIM) and 5,5'-dibromoDIM. CANCER LETT. 2, 198-212
  • Safe S, Qin C, McDougal A (1999). Development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of breast cancer. EXPERT OPIN INVESTIG DRUGS. 9, 1385-96
  • Abdelrahim M, Safe S (2005). Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors decrease vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer cells by enhanced degradation of Sp1 and Sp4 proteins. MOL PHARMACOL. 2, 317-29
  • Safe S (2005). Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors. TRENDS ENDOCRINOL METAB. 4, 139-44
  • Kim K, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S (2005). Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha-Sp1 interactions in breast cancer cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 4, 843-54
  • Lee JE, Kim K, Sacchettini JC, Smith CV, Safe S (2005). DRIP150 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells is independent of LXXLL motifs. J BIOL CHEM. 10, 8819-30
  • Wu Q, Burghardt R, Safe S (2004). Vitamin D-interacting protein 205 (DRIP205) coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) involves multiple domains of both proteins. J BIOL CHEM. 51, 53602-12
  • Safe S (2004). Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem. TOXICOLOGY. 1-2, 3-10
  • Chen CC, Lee WR, Safe S (2004). Egr-1 is activated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ELK-1. J CELL BIOCHEM. 5, 1063-74
  • Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S (2004). Role of Sp proteins in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. CANCER RES. 18, 6740-9
  • Qin C, Samudio I, Ngwenya S, Safe S (2004). Estrogen-dependent regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer cells through activation of nongenomic cAMP-dependent pathways. MOL CARCINOG. 3, 160-70
  • Safe S, Kim K (2004). Nuclear receptor-mediated transactivation through interaction with Sp proteins. PROG NUCLEIC ACID RES MOL BIOL. 77, 1-36
  • Cizmas L, Zhou GD, Safe SH, McDonald TJ, Zhu L, Donnelly KC (2004). Comparative in vitro and in vivo genotoxicities of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, manufactured gas plant residue (MGP), and MGP fractions. ENVIRON MOL MUTAGEN. 3, 159-68
  • Morrow D, Qin C, Smith R 3rd, Safe S (2004). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth and hormone-induced transactivation. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 1, 27-36
  • Safe S, Wormke M, Samudio I (2000). Mechanisms of inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor crosstalk in human breast cancer cells. J MAMMARY GLAND BIOL NEOPLASIA. 3, 295-306
  • Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH (2003). Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. 16, 1877-82
  • Stoner M, Wormke M, Saville B, Samudio I, Qin C, Abdelrahim M, Safe S (2004). Estrogen regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells through interaction of estrogen receptor alpha and SP proteins. ONCOGENE. 5, 1052-63
  • Safe S, Wormke M (2003). Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor alpha cross-talk and mechanisms of action. CHEM RES TOXICOL. 7, 807-16
  • Abdelrahim M, Smith R 3rd, Safe S (2003). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene silencing with small inhibitory RNA differentially modulates Ah-responsiveness in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells. MOL PHARMACOL. 6, 1373-81
  • Khan S, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S (2003). Estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes are required for induction of cad gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 6, 2325-35
  • Castro-Rivera E, Safe S (2003). 17 beta-estradiol- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced transactivation in breast, endometrial and liver cancer cells is dependent on ER-subtype, cell and promoter context. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 1, 23-31
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, McDonnell D (2002). Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. Suppl 6, 925-9
  • Qin C, Burghardt R, Smith R, Wormke M, Stewart J, Safe S (2003). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists induce proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. CANCER RES. 5, 958-64
  • Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt R, Safe S (2003). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes. MOL CELL BIOL. 6, 1843-55
  • Safe S (2002). Environmental estrogens: roles in male reproductive tract problems and in breast cancer. REV ENVIRON HEALTH. 4, 253-62
  • Kim K, Thu N, Saville B, Safe S (2003). Domains of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) required for ERalpha/Sp1-mediated activation of GC-rich promoters by estrogens and antiestrogens in breast cancer cells. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 5, 804-17
  • Vyhlidal C, Li X, Safe S (2002). Estrogen regulation of transferrin gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 3, 305-17
  • Stoner M, Saville B, Wormke M, Dean D, Burghardt R, Safe S (2002). Hypoxia induces proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 breast cancer cells. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 10, 2231-42
  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC (2002). Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 444-50
  • Qin C, Nguyen T, Stewart J, Samudio I, Burghardt R, Safe S (2002). Estrogen up-regulation of p53 gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mediated by calmodulin kinase IV-dependent activation of a nuclear factor kappaB/CCAAT-binding transcription factor-1 complex. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 8, 1793-809
  • Safe SH, Prather PL, Brents LK, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I (2012). Unifying Mechanisms of Action of the Anticancer Activities of Triterpenoids and Synthetic Analogs. ANTICANCER AGENTS MED CHEM.
  • Zhuang G, Meng C, Guo X, Cheruku PS, Shi L, Xu H, Li H, Wang G, Evans AR, Safe S, Wu C, Zhou B (2012). A novel regulator of macrophage activation: miR-223 in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation. CIRCULATION. 23, 2892-903
  • Liu X, Jutooru I, Lei P, Kim K, Lee SO, Brents LK, Prather PL, Safe S (2012). Betulinic Acid Targets YY1 and ErbB2 through Cannabinoid Receptor-Dependent Disruption of MicroRNA-27a:ZBTB10 in Breast Cancer. MOL CANCER THER. 7, 1421-31
  • Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S (2012). Celastrol decreases specificity proteins (Sp) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) in bladder cancer cells. CARCINOGENESIS. 4, 886-94
  • Pathi SS, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S (2011). Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells. NUTR CANCER. 7, 1133-42
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lei P, Pathi S, Safe S (2011). Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors. BMC CANCER. 11, 371
  • Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe S (2002). Small inhibitory RNA duplexes for Sp1 mRNA block basal and estrogen-induced gene expression and cell cycle progression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J BIOL CHEM. 32, 28815-22
  • Duan R, Xie W, Li X, McDougal A, Safe S (2002). Estrogen regulation of c-fos gene expression through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent activation of serum response factor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. BIOCHEM BIOPHYS RES COMMUN. 2, 384-94
  • Safe S, McDougal A (2002). Mechanism of action and development of selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators for treatment of hormone-dependent cancers (Review). INT J ONCOL. 6, 1123-8
  • Mealey KL, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Kochevar DT (2002). Doxycycline induces expression of P glycoprotein in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. ANTIMICROB AGENTS CHEMOTHER. 3, 755-61
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido K, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnellc D (2001). Toxicology of environmental estrogens. REPROD FERTIL DEV. 4, 307-15
  • Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S (2001). Transcriptional activation of rat creatine kinase B by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells involves an estrogen responsive element and GC-rich sites. J CELL BIOCHEM. 1, 156-72
  • Lee JE, Safe S (2001). Involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism in the inhibition of CYP1A1 expression by resveratrol in breast cancer cells. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 8, 1113-24
  • Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Stoner M, Gaido K, Safe S (2001). Differential activation of wild-type and variant forms of estrogen receptor alpha by synthetic and natural estrogenic compounds using a promoter containing three estrogen-responsive elements. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 1, 25-32
  • McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee JE, Safe SH (2001). Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats. BREAST CANCER RES TREAT. 2, 147-57
  • Safe S, Harris M, Zacharewski T (1991). Development and validation of bioassays for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. IARC SCI PUBL. 108, 147-59
  • Castro-Rivera E, Samudio I, Safe S (2001). Estrogen regulation of cyclin D1 gene expression in ZR-75 breast cancer cells involves multiple enhancer elements. J BIOL CHEM. 33, 30853-61
  • McDougal A, Wormke M, Calvin J, Safe S (2001). Tamoxifen-induced antitumorigenic/antiestrogenic action synergized by a selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator. CANCER RES. 10, 3902-7
  • Xie W, Duan R, Safe S (2001). Activation of adenosine deaminase in MCF-7 cells through IGF-estrogen receptor alpha crosstalk. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 3, 217-28
  • Safe S (2001). Transcriptional activation of genes by 17 beta-estradiol through estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions. VITAM HORM. 62, 231-52
  • Safe S (2001). Molecular biology of the Ah receptor and its role in carcinogenesis. TOXICOL LETT. 1-3, 1-7
  • Qin C, Wilson C, Blancher C, Taylor M, Safe S, Harris AL (2001). Association of ARNT splice variants with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, poor induction of vascular endothelial growth factor under hypoxia, and poor prognosis. CLIN CANCER RES. 4, 818-23
  • Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Stoner M, Chen I, Kladde M, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S (2001). Transcriptional activation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha gene expression in MCF-7 cells by 17 beta-estradiol. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 3, 1000-8
  • Chen I, Hsieh T, Thomas T, Safe S (2001). Identification of estrogen-induced genes downregulated by AhR agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using suppression subtractive hybridization. GENE. 1-2, 207-14
  • Porter W, Wang F, Duan R, Qin C, Castro-Rivera E, Kim K, Safe S (2001). Transcriptional activation of heat shock protein 27 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol and modulation by antiestrogens and aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 1, 31-42
  • Wang F, Samudio I, Safe S (2001). Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1-2, 91-103
  • Duan R, Xie W, Burghardt RC, Safe S (2001). Estrogen receptor-mediated activation of the serum response element in MCF-7 cells through MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Elk-1. J BIOL CHEM. 15, 11590-8
  • Stewart MD, Johnson GA, Vyhlidal CA, Burghardt RC, Safe SH, Yu-Lee LY, Bazer FW, Spencer TE (2001). Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine endometrial epithelial cells. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 1, 98-107
  • Lee JE, Safe S (2000). 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist in human breast cancer cells. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 235-42
  • Safe S (2000). Bisphenol A and related endocrine disruptors. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 251-2
  • Xie W, Duan R, Chen I, Samudio I, Safe S (2000). Transcriptional activation of thymidylate synthase by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 7, 2439-49
  • Safe SH (2000). Endocrine disruptors and human health--is there a problem? An update. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. 6, 487-93
  • Yoon K, Pellaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Safe S (2000). Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1-2, 211-20
  • Wormke M, Castro-Rivera E, Chen I, Safe S (2000). Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and crosstalk in human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 5, 197-207
  • Stoner M, Wang F, Wormke M, Nguyen T, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Marme D, Finkenzeller G, Safe S (2000). Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HEC1A endometrial cancer cells through interactions of estrogen receptor alpha and Sp3 proteins. J BIOL CHEM. 30, 22769-79
  • Wang F, Duan R, Chirgwin J, Safe SH (2000). Transcriptional activation of cathepsin D gene expression by growth factors. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 2, 193-202
  • McDougal A, Sethi Gupta M, Ramamoorthy K, Sun G, Safe SH (2000). Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane. CANCER LETT. 2, 169-79
  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC (2000). Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 264-70
  • Saville B, Wormke M, Wang F, Nguyen T, Enmark E, Kuiper G, Gustafsson JA, Safe S (2000). Ligand-, cell-, and estrogen receptor subtype (alpha/beta)-dependent activation at GC-rich (Sp1) promoter elements. J BIOL CHEM. 8, 5379-87
  • Safe S, Wargovich MJ, Lamartiniere CA, Mukhtar H (1999). Symposium on mechanisms of action of naturally occurring anticarcinogens. TOXICOL SCI. 1, 1-8
  • Dong L, Wang W, Wang F, Stoner M, Reed JC, Harigai M, Samudio I, Kladde MP, Vyhlidal C, Safe S (1999). Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells. J BIOL CHEM. 45, 32099-107
  • Duan R, Porter W, Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Kladde M, Safe S (1999). Transcriptional activation of c-fos protooncogene by 17beta-estradiol: mechanism of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 9, 1511-21
  • Wang F, Wang W, Safe S (1999). Regulation of constitutive gene expression through interactions of Sp1 protein with the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex. BIOCHEMISTRY. 35, 11490-500
  • Fernandez P, Wilson C, Hoivik D, Safe SH (1998). Altered phenotypic characteristics of T47d human breast cancer cells after prolonged growth in estrogen-deficient medium. CELL BIOL INT. 9-10, 623-33
  • Wang W, Dong L, Saville B, Safe S (1999). Transcriptional activation of E2F1 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells is regulated by NF-Y-Sp1/estrogen receptor interactions. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 8, 1373-87
  • Castro-Rivera E, Wormke M, Safe S (1999). Estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness of ECC-1 endometrial cancer cells. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1-2, 11-21
  • Qin C, Singh P, Safe S (1999). Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 6, 2501-8
  • Gupta M, McDougal A, Safe S (1998). Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 16alpha- and 2-hydroxy metabolites of 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 5-6, 413-9
  • Safe S, Connor K, Gaido K (1998). Methods for xenoestrogen testing. TOXICOL LETT., 665-70
  • Safe S, Wang F, Porter W, Duan R, McDougal A (1998). Ah receptor agonists as endocrine disruptors: antiestrogenic activity and mechanisms. TOXICOL LETT., 343-7
  • Ramamoorthy K, Gupta MS, Sun G, McDougal A, Safe SH (1999). 3,3'4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl exhibits antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity in the rodent uterus and mammary cells and in human breast cancer cells. CARCINOGENESIS. 1, 115-23
  • Xie W, Duan R, Safe S (1999). Estrogen induces adenosine deaminase gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 interactions. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 1, 219-27
  • Wilson CL, Safe S (1998). Mechanisms of ligand-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated biochemical and toxic responses. TOXICOL PATHOL. 5, 657-71
  • Chen I, McDougal A, Wang F, Safe S (1998). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity of diindolylmethane. CARCINOGENESIS. 9, 1631-9
  • Sun G, Porter W, Safe S (1998). Estrogen-induced retinoic acid receptor alpha 1 gene expression: role of estrogen receptor-Sp1 complex. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 6, 882-90
  • Castro-Rivera E, Safe S (1998). Estrogen- and antiestrogen-responsiveness of HEC1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in culture. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 5-6, 287-95
  • Wang F, Hoivik D, Pollenz R, Safe S (1998). Functional and physical interactions between the estrogen receptor Sp1 and nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes. NUCLEIC ACIDS RES. 12, 3044-52
  • Safe SH (1998). Interactions between hormones and chemicals in breast cancer. ANNU REV PHARMACOL TOXICOL. 38, 121-58
  • Willett KL, Randerath K, Zhou GD, Safe SH (1998). Inhibition of CYP1A1-dependent activity by the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 6, 831-9
  • McDougal A, Wilson C, Safe S (1997). Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor growth by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. CANCER LETT. 1, 53-63
  • Gupta M, Miggens J, Parrish A, Womack J, Ramos KS, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein LS, Holtzapple C, Stanker L, Safe SH (1998). Ah receptor-independent induction of CYP1A2 gene expression in genetically inbred mice. ENVIRON TOXICOL PHARMACOL. 3, 205-13
  • Duan R, Porter W, Safe S (1998). Estrogen-induced c-fos protooncogene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of estrogen receptor Sp1 complex formation. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 4, 1981-90
  • McDougal A, Safe S (1998). Induction of 16alpha-/2-hydroxyestrone metabolite ratios in MCF-7 cells by pesticides, carcinogens, and antiestrogens does not predict mammary carcinogens. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. 4, 203-6
  • Hong SJ, Grover CA, Safe SH, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Frye GD (1998). Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons suppress CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in rat hippocampal slices. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 7-13
  • Safe SH (1998). Development validation and problems with the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of dioxins and related compounds. J ANIM SCI. 1, 134-41
  • Wang W, Smith R 3rd, Burghardt R, Safe SH (1997). 17 beta-Estradiol-mediated growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with the estrogen receptor: cell cycle effects. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1, 49-62
  • Ramamoorthy K, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Chen I, Safe S, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW (1997). Additive estrogenic activities of a binary mixture of 2',4',6'-trichloro- and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 93-100
  • Porter W, Saville B, Hoivik D, Safe S (1997). Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 11, 1569-80
  • Wilson CL, Thomsen J, Hoivik DJ, Wormke MT, Stanker L, Holtzapple C, Safe SH (1997). Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) nonresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells is associated with expression of a variant arnt protein. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 65-73
  • Safe S, Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido K, Maness S (1997). Human exposure to endocrine-active chemicals: hazard assessment problems. REGUL TOXICOL PHARMACOL. 1 Pt 1, 52-8
  • Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P (1997). Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 111-23
  • Wang F, Porter W, Xing W, Archer TK, Safe S (1997). Identification of a functional imperfect estrogen-responsive element in the 5'-promoter region of the human cathepsin D gene. BIOCHEMISTRY. 25, 7793-801
  • Willett KL, Gardinali PR, Sericano JL, Wade TL, Safe SH (1997). Characterization of the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay for evaluation of environmental samples containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL. 4, 442-8
  • Wang WL, Porter W, Burghardt R, Safe SH (1997). Mechanism of inhibition of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell growth by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. CARCINOGENESIS. 5, 925-33
  • Safe SH (1997). Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer? ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. Suppl 3, 675-8
  • Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen IC, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe S (1997). Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 4, 1520-7
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Harper N, Safe SH, Phillips TD (1997). Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. CHEMOSPHERE. 5-7, 1605-13
  • Nodland KI, Wormke M, Safe S (1997). Inhibition of estrogen-induced activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the MCF-7 human breast cancer and other cell lines transfected with vitellogenin A2 gene promoter constructs. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 67-72
  • Safe S (1997). Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of TCDD and related compounds. TERATOG CARCINOG MUTAGEN. 4-5, 285-304
  • Safe SH, Zacharewski T (1997). Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer. PROG CLIN BIOL RES. 396, 133-45
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD (1997). Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 1, 1-8
  • Moore M, Mustain M, Daniel K, Chen I, Safe S, Zacharewski T, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Balaguer P (1997). Antiestrogenic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners identified in human serum. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 160-8
  • Porter W, Wang F, Wang W, Duan R, Safe S (1996). Role of estrogen receptor/Sp1 complexes in estrogen-induced heat shock protein 27 gene expression. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 11, 1371-8
  • Wilker C, Johnson L, Safe S (1996). Effects of developmental exposure to indole-3-carbinol or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on reproductive potential of male rat offspring. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 68-75
  • Bowes RC 3rd, Parrish AR, Steinberg MA, Willett KL, Zhao W, Savas U, Jefcoate CR, Safe SH, Ramos KS (1996). Atypical cytochrome P450 induction profiles in glomerular mesangial cells at the mRNA and enzyme level. Evidence for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and their involvement in benzo[a]pyrene metabolism. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 4, 587-95
  • Lu YF, Sun G, Wang X, Safe S (1996). Inhibition of prolactin receptor gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 35-40
  • Hanneman WH, Legare ME, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe S, Tiffany-Castiglioni E (1996). Stimulation of calcium uptake in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. TOXICOLOGY. 1, 19-28
  • Liu H, Safe S (1996). Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on insulin-induced responses in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 242-50
  • Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S (1996). Substituted flavones as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 8, 1077-87
  • Chen I, Safe S, Bjeldanes L (1996). Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 8, 1069-76
  • Connor K, Howell J, Chen I, Liu H, Berhane K, Sciarretta C, Safe S, Zacharewski T (1996). Failure of chloro-S-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogen receptor-mediated responses in vivo and in vitro. FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 1, 93-101
  • Wang WL, Thomsen JS, Porter W, Moore M, Safe S (1996). Effect of transient expression of the oestrogen receptor on constitutive and inducible CYP1A1 in Hs578T human breast cancer cells. BR J CANCER. 3, 316-22
  • Dickerson R, Keller LH, Safe S (1995). Alkyl polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds as antiestrogens in the female rat uterus: structure-activity studies. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 287-98
  • Krishnan V, Porter W, Santostefano M, Wang X, Safe S (1995). Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells. MOL CELL BIOL. 12, 6710-9
  • Connor K, Safe S, Jefcoate CR, Larsen M (1995). Structure-dependent induction of CYP2B by polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 11, 1913-20
  • Wang X, Thomsen JS, Santostefano M, Rosengren R, Safe S, Perdew GH (1995). Comparative properties of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex from several human cell lines. EUR J PHARMACOL. 3, 191-205
  • Safe S, Washburn K, Zacharewski T, Phillips T (1995). Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum. CHEMOSPHERE. 4, 3017-23
  • Safe SH (1995). Environmental and dietary estrogens and human health: is there a problem? ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. 4, 346-51
  • Lu YF, Santostefano M, Cunningham BD, Threadgill MD, Safe S (1995). Identification of 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone as a pure aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor antagonist and evidence for more than one form of the nuclear Ah receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 470-7
  • Wilker CE, Welsh TH Jr, Safe SH, Narasimhan TR, Johnson L (1995). Human chorionic gonadotropin protects Leydig cell function against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in adult rats: role of Leydig cell cytoplasmic volume. TOXICOLOGY. 1-3, 93-102
  • Liu H, Wormke M, Safe SH, Bjeldanes LF (1994). Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole: a dietary-derived factor that exhibits both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity. J NATL CANCER INST. 23, 1758-65
  • Wang X, Safe S (1994). Development of an in vitro model for investigating the formation of the nuclear Ah receptor complex in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 285-92
  • Narasimhan TR, Craig A, Arellano L, Harper N, Howie L, Menache M, Birnbaum L, Safe S (1994). Relative sensitivities of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced Cyp1a-1 and Cyp1a-2 gene expression and immunotoxicity in female B6C3F1 mice. FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 4, 598-607
  • Harper N, Connor K, Steinberg M, Safe S (1994). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for antibodies to TNP-LPS detects alterations in serum immunoglobulins and isotype switching in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds. TOXICOLOGY. 1-3, 155-67
  • Liu H, Santostefano M, Safe S (1994). 2-Phenylphenanthridinone and related compounds: aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists and suicide inactivators of P4501A1. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 206-14
  • Harper N, Wang X, Liu H, Safe S (1994). Inhibition of estrogen-induced progesterone receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1, 47-55
  • Lu Y, Wang X, Safe S (1994). Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and retinoic acid in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 1-8
  • Santosfefano M, Liu H, Wang X, Chaloupka K, Safe S (1994). Effect of ligand structure on formation and DNA binding properties of the transformed rat cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor. CHEM RES TOXICOL. 4, 544-50
  • Krishnan V, Wang X, Safe S (1994). Estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes mediate estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J BIOL CHEM. 22, 15912-7
  • Weber TJ, Ou X, Merchant M, Wang X, Safe SH, Ramos KS (1994). Biphasic modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in serum-deprived rat aortic smooth muscle cells. J BIOCHEM TOXICOL. 3, 113-20
  • Thomsen JS, Wang X, Hines RN, Safe S (1994). Restoration of aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) responsiveness in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by transient expression of the estrogen receptor. CARCINOGENESIS. 5, 933-7
  • Moore M, Wang X, Lu YF, Wormke M, Craig A, Gerlach JH, Burghardt R, Barhoumi R, Safe S (1994). Benzo[a]pyrene-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A unique aryl hydrocarbon-nonresponsive clone. J BIOL CHEM. 16, 11751-9
  • Johnson L, Wilker CE, Safe SH, Scott B, Dean DD, White PH (1994). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduces the number, size, and organelle content of Leydig cells in adult rat testes. TOXICOLOGY. 1, 49-65
  • Safe SH (1994). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment. CRIT REV TOXICOL. 2, 87-149
  • Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Dickerson R, Safe S (1993). Immunosuppressive effects of highly chlorinated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers on T-cell dependent and independent antigens in mice. TOXICOLOGY. 2-3, 123-35
  • Chaloupka K, Harper N, Krishnan V, Santostefano M, Rodriguez LV, Safe S (1993). Synergistic activity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists. CHEM BIOL INTERACT. 2-3, 141-58
  • Wang X, Porter W, Krishnan V, Narasimhan TR, Safe S (1993). Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated decrease of the nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1-2, 159-66
  • Liu H, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S (1993). 6-substituted 3,4-benzocoumarins: a new structural class of inducers and inhibitors of CYP1A1-dependent activity. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 223-31
  • Safe S (1993). Development of bioassays and approaches for the risk assessment of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. Suppl 3, 317-25
  • Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Steinberg MA, Wang X, Safe S (1993). Potentiation of CYP1A1 gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells cotreated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 483-8
  • Harper N, Connor K, Safe S (1993). Immunotoxic potencies of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. TOXICOLOGY. 2-3, 217-27
  • Merchant M, Krishnan V, Safe S (1993). Mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an Ah receptor antagonist in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 179-85
  • Harper N, Howie L, Connor K, Arellano L, Craig A, Dickerson R, Safe S (1993). Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of highly chlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 4, 496-502
  • Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S (1993). Comparative potencies of Aroclors 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 in male Wistar rats--assessment of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 4, 456-63
  • Krishnan V, Safe S (1993). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: quantitative structure-activity relationships. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 55-61
  • Rowlands C, Krishnan V, Wang X, Santostefano M, Safe S, Miller WR, Langdon S (1993). Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon responsiveness in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. CANCER RES. 8, 1802-7
  • Safe S (1993). Toxicology, structure-function relationship, and human and environmental health impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls: progress and problems. ENVIRON HEALTH PERSPECT. 100, 259-68
  • Moore M, Narasimhan TR, Wang X, Krishnan V, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI (1993). Interaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 17 beta-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 3, 251-61
  • Arellano LO, Wang X, Safe S (1993). Effects of cycloheximide on the induction of CYP1A1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three human breast cancer cell lines. CARCINOGENESIS. 2, 219-22
  • Santostefano M, Merchant M, Arellano L, Morrison V, Denison MS, Safe S (1993). alpha-Naphthoflavone-induced CYP1A1 gene expression and cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor transformation. MOL PHARMACOL. 2, 200-6
  • Mayura K, Spainhour CB, Howie L, Safe S, Phillips TD (1993). Teratogenicity and immunotoxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in C57BL/6 mice. TOXICOLOGY. 1-2, 123-31
  • Sadhu DN, Merchant M, Safe SH, Ramos KS (1993). Modulation of protooncogene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by benzo[a]pyrene. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 124-31
  • Johnson L, Dickerson R, Safe SH, Nyberg CL, Lewis RP, Welsh TH Jr (1992). Reduced Leydig cell volume and function in adult rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin without a significant effect on spermatogenesis. TOXICOLOGY. 2, 103-18
  • Chaloupka K, Krishnan V, Safe S (1992). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens as antiestrogens in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: role of the Ah receptor. CARCINOGENESIS. 12, 2233-9
  • Wang X, Santostefano M, Lu Y, Safe S (1992). A comparison of the mouse versus human aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor complex: effects of proteolysis. CHEM BIOL INTERACT. 1, 79-93
  • Merchant M, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S (1992). Mechanism of action of aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists: inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 389-94
  • Liu H, Biegel L, Narasimhan TR, Rowlands C, Safe S (1992). Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I responses in MCF-7 cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 1-3, 19-28
  • Dookwah HD, Barhoumi R, Narasimhan TR, Safe SH, Burghardt RC (1992). Gap junctions in myometrial cell cultures: evidence for modulation by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate. BIOL REPROD. 3, 397-407
  • Yao C, Safe S (1992). The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran in chick embryo hepatocytes. TOXICOL IN VITRO. 4, 373-80
  • Krishnan V, Narasimhan T, Safe S (1992). Development of gel staining techniques for detecting the secretion of procathepsin D (52-kDa protein) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. ANAL BIOCHEM. 1, 137-42
  • Fernandez P, Safe S (1992). Growth inhibitory and antimitogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in T47D human breast cancer cells. TOXICOL LETT. 2-3, 185-97
  • Rosengren R, Safe S, Bunce NJ (1992). Kinetics of the association of several tritiated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners with hepatic cytosolic Ah receptor from the Wistar rat. CHEM RES TOXICOL. 3, 376-82
  • Wang X, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Santostefano M, Safe S (1992). Characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the human C-4II cervical squamous carcinoma cell line. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 7, 1635-42
  • Zacharewski T, Harris M, Biegel L, Morrison V, Merchant M, Safe S (1992). 6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as an antiestrogen in human and rodent cancer cell lines: evidence for the role of the Ah receptor. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 311-8
  • Dickerson R, Howie L, Safe S (1992). The effect of 6-nitro-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a partial estrogen in the female rat uterus. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 1, 55-63
  • Merchant M, Wang X, Kamps C, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe S (1992). Mechanism of benzo[a]pyrene-induced Cyp1a-1 gene expression in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells: role of the nuclear 6 s and 4 s proteins. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 250-7
  • Safe S, Astroff B, Harris M, Zacharewski T, Dickerson R, Romkes M, Biegel L (1991). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds as antioestrogens: characterization and mechanism of action. PHARMACOL TOXICOL. 6, 400-9
  • Narasimhan TR, Safe S, Williams HJ, Scott AI (1991). Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on 17 beta-estradiol-induced glucose metabolism in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. MOL PHARMACOL. 6, 1029-35
  • Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Morrison V, Zacharewski T, Safe S (1991). DNA binding properties of the Ah receptor in wild-type and variant mouse hepatoma cells. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 362-8
  • Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S (1991). Evidence for the mechanism of action of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated decrease of nuclear estrogen receptor levels in wild-type and mutant mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 12, 1931-9
  • Wang X, Narasimhan TR, Morrison V, Safe S (1991). In situ and in vitro photoaffinity labeling of the nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor from transformed rodent and human cell lines. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 186-94
  • Astroff B, Eldridge B, Safe S (1991). Inhibition of the 17 beta-estradiol-induced and constitutive expression of the cellular protooncogene c-fos by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the female rat uterus. TOXICOL LETT. 3, 305-15
  • Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH (1991). Neonatal exposure to Aroclor 1254: effects on adult hepatic testosterone hydroxylase activities. XENOBIOTICA. 4, 481-9
  • Astroff B, Safe S (1991). 6-Alkyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as antiestrogens in female Sprague-Dawley rats. TOXICOLOGY. 2, 187-97
  • Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Astroff B, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Rosengren R, Morrison V, Safe L, Safe S (1991). Mechanism of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists: characterization of 6-[125I]methyl-8-iodo-1,3-dichlorodibenzofuran-Ah receptor complexes. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 193-200
  • Narasimhan TR, Kim HL, Safe SH (1991). Effects of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls on mouse liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. J BIOCHEM TOXICOL. 3, 229-36
  • Biegel L, Safe S (1990). Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on cell growth and the secretion of the estrogen-induced 34-, 52- and 160-kDa proteins in human breast cancer cells. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 5, 725-32
  • Astroff B, Rowlands C, Dickerson R, Safe S (1990). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibition of 17 beta-estradiol-induced increases in rat uterine epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity and gene expression. MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL. 3, 247-52
  • Harris M, Zacharewski T, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Rosengren R, Safe S (1990). Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related congeners: mechanistic studies. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 243-53
  • Howie L, Dickerson R, Davis D, Safe S (1990). Immunosuppressive and monooxygenase induction activities of polychlorinated diphenyl ether congeners in C57BL/6N mice: quantitative structure-activity relationships. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 254-63
  • Merchant M, Arellano L, Safe S (1990). The mechanism of action of alpha-naphthoflavone as an inhibitor of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 gene expression. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 1, 84-9
  • Dickerson R, Howie L, Davis D, Safe S (1990). The structure-dependent effects of heptachlorodibenzofuran isomers in male C57BL/6 mice: immunotoxicity and monooxygenase enzyme induction. FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL. 2, 298-307
  • Davis D, Safe S (1990). Immunosuppressive activities of polychlorinated biphenyls in C57BL/6N mice: structure-activity relationships as Ah receptor agonists and partial antagonists. TOXICOLOGY. 1, 97-111
  • Kelley M, Womack J, Safe S (1990). Effects of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inducers on mouse hepatic microsomal metabolism of testosterone and alkoxyresorufins. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 12, 1991-8
  • Harris M, Zacharewski T, Safe S (1990). Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds on the occupied nuclear estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. CANCER RES. 12, 3579-84
  • Astroff B, Safe S (1990). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as an antiestrogen: effect on rat uterine peroxidase activity. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 3, 485-8
  • Safe S (1990). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). CRIT REV TOXICOL. 1, 51-88
  • Haake-McMillan JM, Safe SH (1990). Neonatal modulation of adult rat hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activities by Aroclor 1254 or phenobarbital. J BIOCHEM TOXICOL. 4, 203-10
  • Astroff B, Safe S (1989). 6-substituted-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofurans as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonists in the rat: structure activity relationships. TOXICOLOGY. 3, 285-96
  • Safe S, Mason G, Sawyer T, Zacharewski T, Harris M, Yao C, Keys B, Farrell K, Holcomb M, Davis D (1989). Development and validation of in vitro induction assays for toxic halogenated aromatic mixtures: a review. TOXICOL IND HEALTH. 5, 757-75
  • Yao C, Safe S (1989). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced porphyria in genetically inbred mice: partial antagonism and mechanistic studies. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 2, 208-16
  • Harris M, Piskorska-Pliszczynska J, Zacharewski T, Romkes M, Safe S (1989). Structure-dependent induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in human breast cancer cell lines and characterization of the Ah receptor. CANCER RES. 16, 4531-5
  • Zacharewski T, Harris M, Safe S (1989). Induction of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities in rat hepatoma H-4-IIE cells in culture by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds: mechanistic studies using radiolabeled congeners. ARCH BIOCHEM BIOPHYS. 2, 344-55
  • Davis D, Safe S (1989). Dose-response immunotoxicities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. TOXICOL LETT. 1, 35-43
  • Harris M, Zacharewski T, Astroff B, Safe S (1989). Partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase by 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran: mechanistic studies. MOL PHARMACOL. 5, 729-35
  • Biegel L, Harris M, Davis D, Rosengren R, Safe L, Safe S (1989). 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6J mice. TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL. 3, 561-71
  • Bannister R, Biegel L, Davis D, Astroff B, Safe S (1989). 6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6 mice. TOXICOLOGY. 2, 139-50
  • Makary M, Kim HL, Safe S, Womack J, Ivie GW (1989). Induction of glutathione S-transferases in genetically inbred male mice by dietary ethoxyquin hydrochloride. COMP BIOCHEM PHYSIOL C. 2, 171-4
  • Narasimham TR, Kim HL, Safe SH (1989). Effects of sesquiterpene lactones on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. GEN PHARMACOL. 5, 681-7
  • Safe S, Lee SO, Jin UH (2013). Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in carcinogenesis and potential as a drug target. TOXICOL SCI. 1, 1-16
  • Nair V, Pathi S, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Safe S (2013). Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors. CARCINOGENESIS. 12, 2870-9
  • Andey T, Patel A, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M (2013). 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methane compounds inhibit lung cancer cell and tumor growth in a metastasis model. EUR J PHARM SCI. 2, 227-41
  • Lee SO, Jin UH, Kang JH, Kim SB, Guthrie AS, Sreevalsan S, Lee JS, Safe S (2014). The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells. MOL CANCER RES. 4, 527-38
  • Gandhy SU, Kim K, Larsen L, Rosengren RJ, Safe S (2012). Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors by targeting microRNAs. BMC CANCER. 12, 564
  • Pathi SS, Lei P, Sreevalsan S, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Safe S (2011). Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid repress specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes in colon cancer cells. NUTR CANCER. 7, 1133-42
  • Fleming JG, Spencer TE, Safe SH, Bazer FW (2006). Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 2, 899-911
  • Calabrò P, Samudio I, Safe SH, Willerson JT, Yeh ET (2005). Inhibition of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha induced endothelial cell activation by a new class of PPAR-gamma agonists. An in vitro study showing receptor-independent effects. J VASC RES. 6, 509-16
  • Banerjee N, Talcott S, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott SU (2012). Cytotoxicity of pomegranate polyphenolics in breast cancer cells in vitro and vivo: potential role of miRNA-27a and miRNA-155 in cell survival and inflammation. BREAST CANCER RES TREAT. 1, 21-34
  • Jin UH, Lee SO, Safe S (2012). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-active pharmaceuticals are selective AHR modulators in MDA-MB-468 and BT474 breast cancer cells. J PHARMACOL EXP THER. 2, 333-41
  • Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Pathi SS, Jin UH, Lee JS, Park YY, Cho SG, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S (2012). Induction of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 in prostate cancer cells by drug-induced targeting of microRNA-17-92/106b-25 clusters. MOL CANCER THER. 9, 1852-62
  • Schulz VJ, Smit JJ, Huijgen V, Bol-Schoenmakers M, van Roest M, Kruijssen LJ, Fiechter D, Hassing I, Bleumink R, Safe S, van Duursen MB, van den Berg M, Pieters RH (2012). Non-dioxin-like AhR ligands in a mouse peanut allergy model. TOXICOL SCI. 1, 92-102
  • Sankpal UT, Abdelrahim M, Connelly SF, Lee CM, Madero-Visbal R, Colon J, Smith J, Safe S, Maliakal P, Basha R (2012). Small molecule tolfenamic acid inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse model for prostate cancer. PROSTATE. 15, 1648-58
  • Li X, Lee SO, Safe S (2012). Structure-dependent activation of NR4A2 (Nurr1) by 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic)methane analogs in pancreatic cancer cells. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 10, 1445-55
  • Lee SO, Li X, Khan S, Safe S (2011). Targeting NR4A1 (TR3) in cancer cells and tumors. EXPERT OPIN THER TARGETS. 2, 195-206
  • Wu F, Xu R, Kim K, Martin J, Safe S (2008). In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 11, 5696-705
  • Abdelrahim M, Safe S, Baker C, Abudayyeh A (2006). RNAi and cancer: Implications and applications. J RNAI GENE SILENCING. 1, 136-45
  • Safe S, Abdelrahim M (2005). Sp transcription factor family and its role in cancer. EUR J CANCER. 16, 2438-48
  • Ying W, Cheruku PS, Bazer FW, Safe SH, Zhou B (2013). Investigation of macrophage polarization using bone marrow derived macrophages. J VIS EXP. 76
  • Nair V, Sreevalsan S, Basha R, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Rodrigues Hoffman A, Safe S (2014). Mechanism of Metformin-dependent Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer: ROLE OF SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. J BIOL CHEM. 40, 27692-701
  • Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, Kim S, Safe S (2013). HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer. ONCOGENE. 13, 1616-25
  • Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sreevalsan S, Pathi S, Kim K, Chen C, Crose L, Linardic C, Safe S (2013). Inhibition of rhabdomyosarcoma cell and tumor growth by targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. INT J CANCER. 4, 795-806
  • Safe S (2013). Endocrine disruptors and falling sperm counts: lessons learned or not! ASIAN J ANDROL. 2, 191-4
  • Noratto GD, Jutooru I, Safe S, Angel-Morales G, Mertens-Talcott SU (2013). The drug resistance suppression induced by curcuminoids in colon cancer SW-480 cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of the microRNA-27a-ZBTB10-Sp axis. MOL NUTR FOOD RES. 9, 1638-48
  • Pathi SS, Jutooru I, Chadlapaka G, Sreevalsan S, Anand S, Thatcher GR, Safe S (2011). GT-094, a NO-NSAID, inhibits colon cancer cell growth by activation of a reactive oxygen species-microRNA-27a:ZBTB10-specificty protein pathway MOL CANCER RES. 2, 195-202
  • van den Berg M, Denison MS, Birnbaum LS, Devito MJ, Fiedler H, Falandysz J, Rose M, Schrenk D, Safe S, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tysklind M, Peterson RE (2013). Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 197-208
  • Vrangbæk K, Sørensen LM (2013). Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark? SCAND J PUBLIC HEALTH. 6, 616-22
  • Jin UH, Lee SO, Pfent C, Safe S (2014). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand omeprazole inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. BMC CANCER. 14, 498
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Baek SJ, Liu S, Safe S (2005). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists but decrease HCT-116 colon cancer cell survival through receptor-independent activation of early growth response-1 and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1. MOL PHARMACOL. 6, 1782-92
  • Samudio I, Konopleva M, Hail N Jr, Shi YX, McQueen T, Hsu T, Evans R, Honda T, Gribble GW, Sporn M, Gilbert HF, Safe S, Andreeff M (2005). 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) directly targets mitochondrial glutathione to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. J BIOL CHEM. 43, 36273-82
  • Chintharlapalli S, Burghardt R, Papineni S, Ramaiah S, Yoon K, Safe S (2005). Activation of Nur77 by selected 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes induces apoptosis through nuclear pathways. J BIOL CHEM. 26, 24903-14
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Konopleva M, Andreef M, Samudio I, Safe S (2005). 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid and related compounds inhibit growth of colon cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and -independent pathways. MOL PHARMACOL. 1, 119-28
  • Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Safe S (2005). Induction of endoplasmic reticulum-induced stress genes in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells is dependent on Sp proteins. J BIOL CHEM. 16, 16508-13
  • Hong J, Samudio I, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Safe S (2004). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activation of p21 in Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells involves Sp1 and Sp4 proteins. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 12, 5774-85
  • Corbin CJ, Mapes SM, Marcos J, Shackleton CH, Morrow D, Safe S, Wise T, Ford JJ, Conley AJ (2004). Paralogues of porcine aromatase cytochrome P450: a novel hydroxylase activity is associated with the survival of a duplicated gene. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 5, 2157-64
  • Saville B, Poukka H, Wormke M, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ, Stoner M, Samudio I, Safe S (2002). Cooperative coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells by SNURF and TATA-binding protein. J BIOL CHEM. 4, 2485-97
  • Del Follo-Martinez A, Banerjee N, Li X, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S (2013). Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a NUTR CANCER. 3, 494-504
  • Colon J, Basha MR, Madero-Visbal R, Konduri S, Baker CH, Herrera LJ, Safe S, Sheikh-Hamad D, Abudayyeh A, Alvarado B, Abdelrahim M (2011). Tolfenamic acid decreases c-Met expression through Sp proteins degradation and inhibits lung cancer cells growth and tumor formation in orthotopic mice. INVEST NEW DRUGS. 1, 41-51
  • Basha R, Baker CH, Sankpal UT, Ahmad S, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abdelrahim M (2011). Therapeutic applications of NSAIDS in cancer: special emphasis on tolfenamic acid. FRONT BIOSCI (SCHOL ED). 3, 797-805
  • Mertens-Talcott SU, Noratto GD, Li X, Angel-Morales G, Bertoldi MC, Safe S (2013). Betulinic acid decreases ER-negative breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: role of Sp transcription factors and microRNA-27a:ZBTB10. MOL CARCINOG. 8, 591-602
  • De Miranda BR, Miller JA, Hansen RJ, Lunghofer PJ, Safe S, Gustafson DL, Colagiovanni D, Tjalkens RB (2013). Neuroprotective efficacy and pharmacokinetic behavior of novel anti-inflammatory para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J PHARMACOL EXP THER. 1, 125-38
  • Shin JA, Jung JY, Ryu MH, Safe S, Cho SD (2013). Mithramycin A inhibits myeloid cell leukemia-1 to induce apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinomas and tumor xenograft through activation of Bax and oligomerization. MOL PHARMACOL. 1, 33-41
  • Pathi S, Li X, Safe S (2014). Tolfenamic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. MOL CARCINOG. Suppl 1, E53-61
  • Bousquet M, Zhuang G, Meng C, Ying W, Cheruku PS, Shie AT, Wang S, Ge G, Wong P, Wang G, Safe S, Zhou B (2013). miR-150 blocks MLL-AF9-associated leukemia through oncogene repression. MOL CANCER RES. 8, 912-22
  • Boakye CH, Doddapaneni R, Shah PP, Patel AR, Godugu C, Safe S, Katiyar SK, Singh M (2013). Chemoprevention of skin cancer with 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(aromatic) methane analog through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1). PLOS ONE. 8,
  • Lee SO, Li X, Hedrick E, Jin UH, Tjalkens RB, Backos DS, Li L, Zhang Y, Wu Q, Safe S (2014). Diindolylmethane Analogs Bind NR4A1 and Are NR4A1 Antagonists in Colon Cancer Cells. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 10, 1729-39
  • Ying W, Kanameni S, Chang CA, Nair V, Safe S, Bazer FW, Zhou B (2014). Interferon tau alleviates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance by regulating macrophage polarization. PLOS ONE. 6,
  • Jin UH, Lee SO, Sridharan G, Lee K, Davidson LA, Jayaraman A, Chapkin RS, Alaniz R, Safe S (2014). Microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolites and their aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent agonist and antagonist activities. MOL PHARMACOL. 5, 777-88
  • Pathi S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Nair V, Lee SO, Safe S (2012). Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. PLOS ONE. 10,
  • Wilson H, Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, Sheppard S, Pfent C, Safe S (2012). Effect of tolfenamic acid on canine cancer cell proliferation, specificity protein (sp) transcription factors, and sp-regulated proteins in canine osteosarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and melanoma cells. J VET INTERN MED. 4, 977-86
  • Barchowsky A, Buckley LA, Carlson GP, Fitsanakis VA, Ford SM, Genter MB, Germolec DR, Leavens TL, Lehman-McKeeman LD, Safe SH, Sulentic CE, Eidemiller BJ (2012). The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 331-8
  • Patel AR, Spencer SD, Chougule MB, Safe S, Singh M (2012). Pharmacokinetic evaluation and in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of novel methylene-substituted 3,3' diindolylmethane (DIM). EUR J PHARM SCI. 1-2, 8-16
  • Lee SO, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Kim K, Wang H, Safe S (2010). Inactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor TR3/Nur77 inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth. CANCER RES. 17, 6824-36
  • Roberts RA, Smith RA, Safe S, Szabo C, Tjalkens RB, Robertson FM (2010). Toxicological and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. TOXICOLOGY. 2, 85-94
  • Ichite N, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Safe S, Singh M (2010). Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer. MOL CANCER THER. 11, 3003-14
  • Ortholan C, Durivault J, Hannoun-Levi JM, Guyot M, Bourcier C, Ambrosetti D, Safe S, Pagès G (2010). Bevacizumab/docetaxel association is more efficient than docetaxel alone in reducing breast and prostate cancer cell growth: a new paradigm for understanding the therapeutic effect of combined treatment. EUR J CANCER. 16, 3022-36
  • Park YY, Kim K, Kim SB, Hennessy BT, Kim SM, Park ES, Lim JY, Li J, Lu Y, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Jeong W, Mills GB, Safe S, Lee JS (2012). Reconstruction of nuclear receptor network reveals that NR2E3 is a novel upstream regulator of ESR1 in breast cancer. EMBO MOL MED. 1, 52-67
  • Lee SO, Andey T, Jin UH, Kim K, Singh M, Safe S (2012). The nuclear receptor TR3 regulates mTORC1 signaling in lung cancer cells expressing wild-type p53. ONCOGENE. 27, 3265-76
  • Zhang S, Kim K, Jin UH, Pfent C, Cao H, Amendt B, Liu X, Wilson-Robles H, Safe S (2012). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induce microRNA-335 expression and inhibit lung metastasis of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells. MOL CANCER THER. 1, 108-18
  • Li Z, Chadalapaka G, Ramesh A, Khoshbouei H, Maguire M, Safe S, Rhoades RE, Clark R, Jules G, McCallister M, Aschner M, Hood DB (2012). PAH particles perturb prenatal processes and phenotypes: protection from deficits in object discrimination afforded by dampening of brain oxidoreductase following in utero exposure to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene. TOXICOL SCI. 1, 233-47
  • Kim K, Chadalapaka G, Lee SO, Yamada D, Sastre-Garau X, Defossez PA, Park YY, Lee JS, Safe S (2012). Identification of oncogenic microRNA-17-92/ZBTB4/specificity protein axis in breast cancer. ONCOGENE. 8, 1034-44
  • Yoon K, Lee SO, Cho SD, Kim K, Khan S, Safe S (2011). Activation of nuclear TR3 (NR4A1) by a diindolylmethane analog induces apoptosis and proapoptotic genes in pancreatic cancer cells and tumors. CARCINOGENESIS. 6, 836-42
  • Abdelbaqi K, Lack N, Guns ET, Kotha L, Safe S, Sanderson JT (2011). Antiandrogenic and growth inhibitory effects of ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (ring-DIMs) in hormone-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. PROSTATE. 13, 1401-12
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Lee SO, Lei P, Jin UH, Sherman SI, Santarpia L, Safe S (2011). Inhibition of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 in thyroid cancer cells by drugs that decrease specificity proteins. MOL CARCINOG. 9, 655-67
  • Maliakal P, Abdelrahim M, Sankpal UT, Maliakal C, Baker CH, Safe S, Herrera LJ, Abudayyeh A, Kaja S, Basha R (2012). Chemopreventive effects of tolfenamic acid against esophageal tumorigenesis in rats. INVEST NEW DRUGS. 3, 853-61
  • Wu F, Ivanov I, Xu R, Safe S (2009). Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies. J MOL ENDOCRINOL. 1, 19-33
  • Carbone DL, Popichak KA, Moreno JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB (2009). Suppression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced nitric-oxide synthase 2 expression in astrocytes by a novel diindolylmethane analog protects striatal neurons against apoptosis. MOL PHARMACOL. 1, 35-43
  • Lei P, Abdelrahim M, Cho SD, Liu S, Chintharlapalli S, Safe S (2008). 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes inhibit colon cancer cell and tumor growth through activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase. CARCINOGENESIS. 6, 1139-47
  • Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Safe S (2008). Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL. 1-2, 104-15
  • Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Liu S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Cho SD, Murthy RS, You Y, Safe S (2007). 2-cyano-lup-1-en-3-oxo-20-oic acid, a cyano derivative of betulinic acid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. CARCINOGENESIS. 11, 2337-46
  • Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr (2007). Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. CARCINOGENESIS. 10, 2227-35
  • Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, De Vito M, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE (2006). The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 223-41
  • Higgins KJ, Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Yoon K, Safe S (2006). Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins. BIOCHEM BIOPHYS RES COMMUN. 1, 292-301
  • Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Yoon K, Vanderlaag K, Porter W, Metz RP, Safe S (2006). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is induced by 17beta-estradiol in ZR-75 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 7, 3285-95
  • Abdelrahim M, Newman K, Vanderlaag K, Samudio I, Safe S (2006). 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5. CARCINOGENESIS. 4, 717-28
  • Lee SH, Yamaguchi K, Kim JS, Eling TE, Safe S, Park Y, Baek SJ (2006). Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner. CARCINOGENESIS. 5, 972-81
  • Mitchell DC, Abdelrahim M, Weng J, Stafford LJ, Safe S, Bar-Eli M, Liu M (2006). Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2alpha and specificity protein-1. J BIOL CHEM. 1, 51-8
  • Phillips TD, Richardson M, Cheng YS, He L, McDonald TJ, Cizmas LH, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Wang F, Moorthy B, Zhou GD (2014). Mechanistic relationships between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. ARCH TOXICOL.
  • Safe S, Imanirad P, Sreevalsan S, Nair V, Jutooru I (2014). Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1 as a therapeutic target. EXPERT OPIN THER TARGETS. 7, 759-69
  • Zhang Z, Kim K, Li X, Moreno M, Sharp T, Goodheart MJ, Safe S, Dupuy AJ, Amendt BA (2014). MicroRNA-26b represses colon cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting lymphoid enhancer factor 1 expression. MOL CANCER THER. 7, 1942-51
  • Jutooru I, Guthrie AS, Chadalapaka G, Pathi S, Kim K, Burghardt R, Jin UH, Safe S (2014). Mechanism of action of phenethylisothiocyanate and other reactive oxygen species-inducing anticancer agents. MOL CELL BIOL. 13, 2382-95
  • Pang X, Zhang L, Wu Y, Lin L, Li J, Qu W, Safe S, Liu M (2010). Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me), a derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. J PHARMACOL EXP THER. 1, 172-9
  • Tsao T, Kornblau S, Safe S, Watt JC, Ruvolo V, Chen W, Qiu Y, Coombes KR, Ju Z, Abdelrahim M, Schober W, Ling X, Kardassis D, Meyer C, Schimmer A, Kantarjian H, Andreeff M, Konopleva M (2010). Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its coactivator DRIP205 in cellular responses to CDDO (RTA-401) in acute myelogenous leukemia. CANCER RES. 12, 4949-60
  • Bredfeldt TG, Greathouse KL, Safe SH, Hung MC, Bedford MT, Walker CL (2010). Xenoestrogen-induced regulation of EZH2 and histone methylation via estrogen receptor signaling to PI3K/AKT. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 5, 993-1006
  • Cho SD, Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Yoon K, Kamat AM, Safe S (2010). Activation of nerve growth factor-induced B alpha by methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes in bladder cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth. MOL PHARMACOL. 3, 396-404
  • Guo J, Chintharlapalli S, Lee SO, Cho SD, Lei P, Papineni S, Safe S (2010). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells. CANCER CHEMOTHER PHARMACOL. 1, 141-50
  • da Costa CA, Sunyach C, Giaime E, West A, Corti O, Brice A, Safe S, Abou-Sleiman PM, Wood NW, Takahashi H, Goldberg MS, Shen J, Checler F (2009). Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. NAT CELL BIOL. 11, 1370-5
  • Lee SO, Chintharlapalli S, Liu S, Papineni S, Cho SD, Yoon K, Safe S (2009). p21 expression is induced by activation of nuclear nerve growth factor-induced Balpha (Nur77) in pancreatic cancer cells. MOL CANCER RES. 7, 1169-78
  • Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe S (2009). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy. ENDOCR RELAT CANCER. 3, 835-44
  • Liu X, Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A, Lei P, Safe S (2009). The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid inhibits BT474 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell and tumor growth by repressing erbB2 expression. MOL CANCER THER. 5, 1207-17
  • Konduri S, Colon J, Baker CH, Safe S, Abbruzzese JL, Abudayyeh A, Basha MR, Abdelrahim M (2009). Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression. MOL CANCER THER. 3, 533-42
  • Fritz WA, Lin TM, Safe S, Moore RW, Peterson RE (2009). The selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran inhibits prostate tumor metastasis in TRAMP mice. BIOCHEM PHARMACOL. 7, 1151-60
  • Sreevalsan S, Safe S (2013). The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 decreases specificity protein transcription factors and the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E in colon cancer cells. MOL CANCER THER. 11, 2483-93
  • Goldberg AA, Titorenko VI, Beach A, Abdelbaqi K, Safe S, Sanderson JT (2014). Ring-substituted analogs of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) induce apoptosis and necrosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells. INVEST NEW DRUGS. 1, 25-36
  • Safe S, Jin UH, Hedrick E, Reeder A, Lee SO (2014). Minireview: role of orphan nuclear receptors in cancer and potential as drug targets. MOL ENDOCRINOL. 2, 157-72
  • Patel AR, Chougule MB, Lim E, Francis KP, Safe S, Singh M (2014). Theranostic tumor homing nanocarriers for the treatment of lung cancer. NANOMEDICINE. 5, 1053-63
  • Yang WS, Chadalapaka G, Cho SG, Lee SO, Jin UH, Jutooru I, Choi K, Leung YK, Ho SM, Safe S, Kim K (2014). The transcriptional repressor ZBTB4 regulates EZH2 through a MicroRNA-ZBTB4-specificity protein signaling axis. NEOPLASIA. 12, 1059-69
  • Jin UH, Kim SB, Safe S (2015). Omeprazole Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through a Nongenomic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway. CHEM RES TOXICOL. 5, 907-18
  • Gandhy SU, Imanirad P, Jin UH, Nair V, Hedrick E, Cheng Y, Corton JC, Kim K, Safe S (2015). Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC. ONCOTARGET.
  • Hedrick E, Lee SO, Doddapaneni R, Singh M, Safe S (2015). Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy. ENDOCR RELAT CANCER.
  • Riddell N, Jin UH, Safe S, Cheng Y, Chittim B, Konstantinov A, Parette R, Pena-Abaurrea M, Reiner EJ, Poirier D, Stefanac T, McAlees AJ, McCrindle R (2015). Characterization and Biological Potency of Mono- to Tetra-Halogenated Carbazoles. ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL. 17, 10658-66
  • Hedrick E, Crose L, Linardic CM, Safe S (2015). Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors. MOL CANCER THER.
  • Das Gupta S, Sae-Tan S, Wahler J, So JY, Bak MJ, Cheng LC, Lee MJ, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Shull JD, Safe S, Yang CS, Suh N (2015). Dietary γ-Tocopherol Rich Mixture Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Estrogen Metabolism, Antioxidant Response and PPARγ. CANCER PREV RES (PHILA).
  • Goldberg AA, Draz H, Montes-Grajales D, Olivero-Verbél J, Safe SH, Sanderson JT (2015). 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its ring-substituted halogenated analogs (ring-DIMs) induce differential mechanisms of survival and death in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells. GENES CANCER. 5-6, 265-80
  • Patel AR, Doddapaneni R, Andey T, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M (2015). Evaluation of self-emulsified DIM-14 in dogs for oral bioavailability and in Nu/nu mice bearing stem cell lung tumor models for anticancer activity. J CONTROL RELEASE. 213, 18-26
  • Hedrick E, Lee SO, Kim G, Abdelrahim M, Jin UH, Safe S, Abudayyeh A (2015). Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma. PLOS ONE. 6,
  • Fan YY, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Wright GA, Safe S, Chapkin RS (2015). A bioassay to measure energy metabolism in mouse colonic crypts, organoids, and sorted stem cells. AM J PHYSIOL GASTROINTEST LIVER PHYSIOL. 1,
  • Safe S, Jin UH, Morpurgo B, Abudayyeh A, Singh M, Tjalkens RB (2015). Nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family - orphans no more. J STEROID BIOCHEM MOL BIOL.
  • Cheng Y, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Corton JC, Safe S (2015). The long non-coding RNA HOTTIP enhances pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration. ONCOTARGET. 13, 10840-52
  • Cheng Y, Jin UH, Allred CD, Jayraman A, Chapkin RS, Safe S (2015). Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Tryptophan Metabolites in Young Adult Mouse Colonocytes. DRUG METAB DISPOS.
  • De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Jorgensen BA, Phillips AT, Safe S, Tjalkens RB (2015). The Nurr1 Activator 1,1-Bis(3'-Indolyl)-1-(p-Chlorophenyl)Methane Blocks Inflammatory Gene Expression in BV-2 Microglial Cells by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor κB. MOL PHARMACOL. 6, 1021-34
  • Safe S (2015). Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer--letter. CANCER PREV RES (PHILA). 4, 338
  • De Miranda BR, Popichak KA, Hammond SL, Miller JA, Safe S, Tjalkens RB (2015). Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. TOXICOL SCI. 2, 360-73
  • Patel AR, Godugu C, Wilson H, Safe S, Singh M (2015). Evaluation of Spray BIO-Max DIM-P in Dogs for Oral Bioavailability and in Nu/nu Mice Bearing Orthotopic/Metastatic Lung Tumor Models for Anticancer Activity. PHARM RES. 7, 2292-300
  • Boakye CH, Shah PP, Doddapaneni R, Patel AR, Safe S, Singh M (2015). Enhanced Percutaneous Delivery of 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl) Methane for Skin Cancer Chemoprevention. J BIOMED NANOTECHNOL. 7, 1269-81