Vet School from a Distance

The COVID-19 pandemic has, in a matter of days, changed just about everything in our daily lives, and our veterinary education is no exception. Near the end of our spring break, we received word that classes during the subsequent week would be cancelled to allow planning for a pivot to an online format.

What does an online veterinary education look like, you ask? Great question!

As I write this, our veterinary classes are set to resume in a few days, so I don’t have all the answers. What I can tell you is what life for me has looked like for the past week. Although no formal classes were held, our instructors continued to post class material so that we could continue our learning.

Back in College Station, our instructors have been working tirelessly to revise their courses to an online format. They posted new syllabi to reflect modifications to class formats, exam schedules, assignment due dates, and exam formats. Some classes will lecture by virtual video conferencing (such as Zoom), other classes will have content posted ahead of time for us to watch at our leisure, and other classes will ask us to review content ahead of time then meet virtually during our normal class time for a Q&A session. While it will be challenging to adapt to the various learning styles, I am extremely grateful that we may continue our education during this unprecedented time.

Day-to-day life as a student looks a little bit different for everyone. Many of my classmates, myself included, are in their hometowns to be close (albeit socially distanced!) to loved ones. I am currently living with my partner and his roommate in Oregon.

Because of the time difference, I am trying to wake up early each day so that when classes resume I can cope with taking tests and being functional at 6 a.m. Pacific Time. It’s a small price to pay for being able to stay home and close to my parents and loved ones. My classmates and I study and collaborate via Google Docs. When the weather is nice, I take a break from studying by exploring the nearby walking trails. I stay in touch with friends and family by phone, Facetime, and social media. When all else fails, there are always board games to stay entertained.

Although these are uncertain times, I take comfort in knowing that my classmates, my instructors, and I are all doing our best to adapt to the evolving situation and keep each other safe. Our resiliency has helped us get to where we are now, and it will help us get through whatever the next few months hold.

A VOICE for All

Diversity helps improve the workplace. This is something that is spoken as common knowledge and even taught in Doctor of Veterinary Medicine curriculum.

Dr. Brandy Duhon Speaking Despite knowing the benefits of diversity, the veterinary medicine profession is 94 percent white (a statistic taken from an email sent out by one of our vet school counselors earlier this week).

The need for more diversity and cultural education to further advance the field of veterinary medicine is what drove me to join organizations like the Council of Diversity and Professionalism (CDP) and Veterinarians as One Inclusive Community for Empowerment (VOICE).

Many of the vet school organizations, as one would expect, are related to animals; however, VOICE works to facilitate an inclusive environment through education and outreach about different cultures, religions, and abilities.

In the past, we have had many presentations and tables about different Picture of Dr. Duhon's Presentationcultures and religions, but I noticed we had never mentioned the role of people with disabilities in veterinary medicine.

Luckily, I was fortunate enough to find the perfect person to help speak about this topic two years ago. Dr. Brandy Duhon, a clinical instructor of shelter medicine and surgery at Louisiana State University, left a lasting impression on me, not only because she was the only veterinarian I have ever met who had no hands, but also because of her larger than life personality.

Bringing Dr. Duhon to Texas A&M was a huge feat that I could have not accomplished without the help of the rest of the VOICE officer team, but all of that hard work was totally worth it. The meeting was ultimately a success, drawing more than 100 attendees!

So many people after the meeting thanked me for bringing Dr. Duhon to Texas A&M.

Veterinarians are often told that their best diagnostic tools are their eyes and their hands, but that isn’t necessarily true!

Dr. Duhon’s willingness to be persistent and think outside of the box are what I believe to be her best tools as a veterinarian. Since her end result is the same, it doesn’t even matter that she does things different than the textbook.

Dr. Duhon mentioned that her success has been due to the support of her family, classmates, and mentors who were willing to let her experiment with different ways of doing things.

Picture with Dr. Brandy Duhon I really hope that this meeting contributes to eliminating any underlying bias and pushes my colleagues to realize that people with disabilities, just like anyone else, have so much potential to do good work and advance the profession.

Furthermore, I hope that the veterinary students with and without disabilities feel encouraged to keep trying to learn new things in the face of adversity, even if they don’t at first succeed.

Dr. Duhon could have easily given up when she lost her hands at a young age because of meningitis, but her positive attitude and love for learning helped her persevere and become the person she is today.

I encourage everyone to apply these messages to their own life and become a voice for all.

Veterinary Volunteering Abroad in Thailand and Vietnam

Meeting Kasetsart University’s Biggest Patient – an Asian Elephant
Making a Global Impact

Over the summer, I was honored to represent United States veterinary schools at the ASEAN Veterinary Volunteer Project in Thailand and Vietnam. This project, which was facilitated by Kasetsart University, the largest university in Thailand, brought together around 50 veterinary students from more than 14 countries to accomplish veterinary volunteer work in underserved communities and build relationships among veterinary students around the world.

Welcome ceremony at Kasetsart University

After landing in Bangkok, Thailand, we settled into our dorms and headed to Kasetsart University’s campus. At the welcome ceremony, students from each country presented on a challenge facing their veterinary community. These ranged from African Swine Fever in Vietnam, veterinary waste in Cambodia, and a lack of rural veterinarians in France.

I chose to present about the student debt-to-income ratio facing many students because it is quite unique to the United States; most of the other students at the volunteer project attend school for six years and the cost is less.

An elephant skeleton at Kasetsart University

After touring Kasetsart University’s veterinary hospital, we were assigned our independent research projects; my group was to assess athelmintic resistance of Haemonchus (resistance to antiparasitic drugs, in this case, to treat a parasite commonly referred to as the barber’s pole worm) in rural goat herds in Thailand and study rabies awareness in Vietnam.

After getting to know the other students in the volunteer program, we split into smaller groups and were shipped off to separate rural communities in need.

The Buddhist temple where we conducted our volunteering in Thailand
Getting a Buddhist Experience
For the next week we would be staying in Buddhist temples, which were the centers of these villages. We converted these Buddhist temples into makeshift hospitals and dormitories. We slept on the wooden floors covered with mosquito netting and set up metal tables for animal physical exams. Bathrooms consisted of holes in the floor and showers were simply a faucet and a large bucket. Although we had no air conditioning in the middle of the hot and rainy season, I was ecstatic to be surrounded by new friends and improving the healthcare of animals.
Team “selfie” after working hard to plant trees in the local Thailand village

As a group, we did much more than simple veterinary work. Not only were we helping the communities with animal health care, but we also strived to improve the environment as well. We planted trees along a river that will one day provide both fruit and homes for future wildlife.

During part of our stay, we also surveyed the communities, going door-to-door and offering free rabies vaccinations for dogs and cats. In addition, we educated children at the local school about the dangers of rabies and the importance of vaccinating their pets. All in all, we vaccinated more than 500 animals in just a few days.

Group picture with the local villagers and their goat herd

In addition to small animal medicine, we worked with local villagers to improve food animal health. During this time, we went from farm to farm vaccinating goats and cattle for foot-and-mouth disease, a virus that causes blisters on the hooves and mouths of these animals, which causes serious concerns for livestock. In addition to vaccination, we analyzed their fecal samples for parasites, dewormed them with parasiticides, and took blood samples for brucellosis testing.

This was important because for many of the members in these communities, their herds are their main sources of income and food.

The last two days in our rural villages consisted of performing physical exams on cats and dogs, as well as spaying and neutering them. Many of these animals were either strays or community dogs that roamed the streets, while some belonged to households.

Under the supervision of multiple veterinarians, I performed my first spay and neuter. I was so thankful for the education I received at Texas A&M because I had a head-start on suturing—many of my peers were performing their first sutures, and I was lucky to have built up confidence with this skill on models in the past.

Transporting a patient to the recovery room after a neuter

After performing the spays and neuters, we monitored our patients throughout their recovery. All together, we spayed and neutered more than 150 animals free-of-charge for the local communities.

Not only will these procedures help prevent stray overpopulation, but they help protect the pets from future illnesses. Some of the animals we encountered had pyometra (a bacterial infection of the uterus), which, left untreated—highly likely due to the lack of veterinary care in the area—is usually fatal. Even more, by spaying and neutering the animals, we decreased their change of developing certain types of cancer and many other illnesses.

Finally, it was time to analyze the goat fecal samples for Haemonchus, a dangerous intestinal parasite. To do this, we used the McMaster fecal egg-count method, in which we were able to determine the amount of parasite eggs per gram of feces by looking at samples under a microscope. We processed more than 200 samples and collected data that will help with research and determining if Haemonchus parasites in the area have developed resistance to Albendazole. After analyzing all of the fecal samples, we determined that there was a 92 percent prevalence rate among the goats in the villages.

Educating Thai Farmers—and Myself
We also collected data on the farmers’ awareness of caprine (goat) parasites. We developed a questionnaire with basic questions about how their animals may become infected and what measures they used for prevention. After analyzing the responses, we determined that many farmers were not aware of the proper use and dosages of their dewormer medications. Unfortunately, this may lead to increased resistance of nematode parasites to dewormers, which may explain why some goats were heavily infected.

One thing I loved about this program was the variety of experiences we received. As someone who grew up in a suburban area, I had very little experience with farm animals. Through this program, I was able to learn how to handle livestock such as goats and cattle and practice my clinical skills with these animals. Before this program, I had never drawn blood from a goat before, but now I can say that I’ve practiced that skill more than 200 times.

Even more, we weren’t limited to domestic species—at the end of our stay in Thailand, we got to tour Kasetsart University’s exotic ward and raptor center. The Kasetsart University Raptor Center is integral to the conservation of birds of prey in Thailand. In the past, people used to hunt owls because they were seen as “bad omens” but because of the raptor center’s education and conservation efforts, farmers are now installing owl nest boxes in order to attract them and use them for rodent control.


Learning raptor handling and medicine at Kasetsart Raptor Center

After touring the facility, the veterinarians at the center graciously walked us through bird of prey handling and medical techniques. As someone who wishes to specialize in exotic medicine in the future, I was thrilled to practice administering injections, drawing blood, and placing splints on raptors in need of care.

After learning about bird of prey medicine, we then split into small groups to install owl nest boxes around the campus. One thing I was intrigued to learn is that without a suitable nesting area, many owls will fail to pair up and reproduce. By increasing the number of nest boxes in an area, we hope to boost owl numbers back to what they once were.

A sampling of traditional Thai food during our last night in Thailand
Immersing Myself in the Culture
One of my favorite things about the volunteer program was that it encouraged us to immerse ourselves in the Thai culture. As an adventurous eater, I enthusiastically tried every delicacy I was offered, whether it be fried crickets, fertilized chicken eggs, or stew with the entire fish thrown in. Many of the dishes were very spicy, which I loved, but it definitely wasn’t easy for everyone, especially some of the western students.

Instead of sweet breakfasts that are staples in the U.S., we would typically eat spicy pork and rice for breakfast. Although it was different, I felt like I was in heaven eating authentic Thai food for every meal. I also was excited to try fruits that I had never imagined existed; many of them looked foreign to me but all tasted amazing.

Luckily, we were able to take a few breaks from our medical work to learn about Thai culture. While working with the other Thai students, I would ask them about their Buddhist holidays and they would tell me stories about growing up in Thailand. We were able to travel to museums that displayed artifacts from hundreds of years ago and visit sacred temples with golden statues of Buddha taller than a two-story house.

Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Moving on to Vietnam
Soon, our time was over in Thailand and we were off on our journey to Vietnam. We landed in Ho Chi Minh City and arrived at Nong Lam University, where we were welcomed by veterinary students from the school. After a short welcome ceremony and a morning full of lectures, we headed out to volunteer and plant trees with high school students in the local community.

After spending a few days in Ho Chi Minh City, we once again split off into our smaller groups and left for the rural communities. Once we arrived in these villages, we readied our supplies and set off on our mopeds, zooming from one local farm to the next.

Planting trees in the local Vietnamese Community

In these rural Vietnamese villages, many families raise their own livestock, including chickens, goats, pigs, and cattle. Although many of these practices were different from what I’ve seen in the U.S., I was excited to learn about lifestyles and practices in a culture different from my own.

At each new household, we were often greeted with warm smiles and hot tea. The Vietnamese veterinary students usually translated our conversations with the villagers, but sometimes young children would walk up to me and shyly squeak out a “hello!” before running back behind their parents.

My team in front of a herd of cattle that we just vaccinated

Similar to our volunteer work in Thailand, we vaccinated cattle for foot-and-mouth disease, gave them deworming medicine, and took blood samples for brucellosis testing. The skill of the Vietnamese veterinary students were impressive; at times I felt like I was at a Texas rodeo watching them rope and catch the cattle.

Once we were finished with our large animal work, we switched gears to start working with small animals. Over the next few days, we vaccinated dogs and cats throughout the village and spread helpful information about the importance of rabies prevention.

My small research group conducting rabies research in Vietnam

My group’s next research project was more epidemiology (medicine dealing with diseases) focused and assessed the rural village’s knowledge and awareness of rabies. Unfortunately in Vietnam, rabid dogs are the leading cause of rabies infections in humans. Although progress is being made to combat the disease prevalence, there is still work to be done to educate the public about the dangers of rabies and increase vaccinations among dogs in the area.

After developing a questionnaire, we went from house-to-house asking villagers what they knew about rabies, how they thought it was transmitted, whether their pets were vaccinated, and what they would do if they were bitten by a suspicious animal.

While most had proper knowledge of rabies and responded that they vaccinate their dogs, there were still a few others that believed in outdated and unscientific practices, such as rubbing rhino skin into the bite wound. Others admitted that in the past, children had died from rabies bites because they either did not know the severity of consequences or were afraid to tell their parents. From this we determined that more education is needed to further combat rabies in the area.

Crawling through the tunnels of Cu Chi which were used during the Vietnam War
Experiencing History
We were lucky enough to learn some history when we were not volunteering. On one rest day, we took a trip to Cu Chi tunnels, which were a network of tunnels used by the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War. I was astonished to learn that people lived in these tunnel systems for years—especially since many of tunnels were too shallow to stand in and some were almost too small for me to fit through. We also paid our respects at the Ben Duoc Temple, which commemorates the lives lost during the Vietnam War
Walking up to the Ben Duoc Temple

Finally, we had a chance to visit Ho Chi Minh City before we left. My favorite part was the night market, where they would close off multiple streets and vendors would set up cart displays of traditional food and souvenirs.

When our three weeks together was up, it was time to say goodbye. We attended a farewell ceremony, at which we ate traditional Vietnamese dishes and our groups received recognition for their work. After hours of singing, dancing, and a little bit of happy-crying, we wished our new friends safe travels back home.

As I took my taxi back to the Ho Chi Minh airport, I couldn’t help but smile thinking of all the fond memories I made with my veterinary student friends from around the world.