Schubot Publications

Infectious Diseases


General Aviculture

Case Reports


New Avian Parasites

  • SC-15. Endohelminths from the Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea from the Texas Gulf Coast. Dronen NO, Chen H-W. Comparative Parasitology 2002; 69(1):96-99.
  • SC-20. Prevalence of Microsporidian Spores Shed by Asymptomatic Lovebirds: Evidence for a Potential Emergining Zoonosis. Barton CE, Phalen DN, Snowden KF. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2003. 17(4):197-202.
  • SC-29. A comparison of homologous genes encoding aminopeptidases among bird and human Encephalitozoon hellem isolates and a rabbit E. cuniculi isolate. Waters PF, Snowden KF, Holman PJ. Parasitol Res. 2004 ;93(5):410-418.
  • SC-31. Encephalitozoon infection in birds. Snowden K and Phalen DN. Seminars Avian Exotic Pet Med. 2004;13:94-99.
  • SC-33. Emedation of the subfamilies Caiguiriinae and Pygidiopsinae (Digenea) with a redescription of Caiguiria anterouteria (Digenea: Heterophyidae) and reassignment of Pygydiopsis crassus to Caiguiria Zootaxa, Dronen NO, Blend CK, Davis AJ. 2004, 417:1-12.
  • SC-36. A new genus and species of cyclocoelid from the black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus (Recurvirostridae), from Galveston, Texas. Dronen NO, Blend CK. J Parasitol. 2005;91(1):108-110.
  • SC-39. Encephalitozoon hellem infection as the cause of a unilateral chronic keratoconjunctivitis in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba). Phalen DN, Logan KS, Snowden KF. Vet Ophthalmol. 2006;9(1):59-63.
  • SC-47. Stictodora cablei n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from the royal tern, Sterna maxima (Laridae: Sterninae) from Puerto Rico and the Brazos County area of the Texas Gulf coast, U.S.A., with a list of other endohelminths recovered in Texas. Dronen NO, Blend CK, Gardner SL Jimenez FA. Zootaxa, 2007. 1432: 35-56.
  • SC-61. A new cyclocoelid (Digenea) genus from the grey-winged trumpeter, Psophia crepitans (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae), from Guyana. Dronen NO, Kinsella JM. J Parasitol. 2009;95(1):175-177.
  • SC-65. Circumvitellatrema momota n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from a captive-hatched blue-crowned motmot, Momotus momota (Momotidae). Dronen NO, Greiner EC, Ialeggio DM, Nolan TJ. Zootaxa. 2009; 2161: 60-68.
  • SC-82. Dronen, N. O., W. J. Wardle and M. Bhuthimethee. 2002. Helminthic parasites from willets, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from the area of Galveston, Texas, U.S.A, including descriptions of Kowalewskiella catoptrophori sp. n. and Kowalewskiella macrospinum sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae). Comparative Parasitology 69: 43-50.
  • SC-83. Dronen, N. O., C. K. Blend, and C. K. Anderson. 2003. Endohelminths from the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchusfrom Galveston Bay, Texas, U.S.A. and checklist of pelican parasites. Comparative Parasitology 70:140-154.
  • SC-84. Dronen, N. O., C. K. Blend, and A. J. Davis. 2005. Caiguiria himantopae n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from the black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus (Recurvirostridae), from the Galveston area of the Texas GulfCoast, including a list of other endohelminths found. Comparative Parasitology 72: 22-27.
  • SC-85. Dronen, N. O., S. L. Gardner, and F. A. Jiménez. 2006. Selfcoelum limnodromi n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Oklahoma, U.S.A. Zootaxa 1131: 49-58.
  • SC-86. Dronen, N. O., S. L. Gardner, and F. A. Jiménez. 2006. Haematotrephus limnodromi n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae) from the Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopacceus(Scolopacidae) from the central flyway of North America. Zootaxa 1153: 51-61.
  • SC-87. Dronen, N. O., T. M. Craig, and E. E. Hammond. 2006. Szidatitrema yamagutii n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Ophthalmophaginae) from the bearded barbet, Lybius dubius(Capitionidae), and the white-necked myna, Streptocitta albicollis (Sturnidae), that died in the tropical bird house at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Zootaxa 1219: 59-68.
  • SC-88. Dronen, N. O. 2007. Wardianum catoptrophori n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) from the willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Scolopacidae) from the Galveston, Texas area of the Gulf of Mexico. Comparative Parasitology 74: 35-40.
  • SC-89. Dronen, N. O. and C. K. Blend. 2007. Ophthalmophagus bucephali n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae) from the American goldeneye, Bucephala clangulaamericana (Anatidae) from the central flyway of North America, with a list of parasites previously reported from goldeneye. Comparative Parasitology 74: 48-74.
  • SC-90. Dronen, N. O. 2007. Revision of the family Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902 with the proposal of two new subfamilies and the description of a new species of Morishitium Witenberg, 1928 from the common snipe, Gallinag gallinago, from Texas, U.S.A. Zootaxa 1563: 55-68.
  • SC-91. Dronen, N. O., C. K. Blend, S. L. Gardner, and F. A. Jiménez. 2008. Two cyclocoelids from the lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes (Scolopacidae), from the centralflywayof North America, including the description of Haematotrephus selfi n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae). Comparative Parasitology 75 (1): 1-11.
  • SC-92. Dronen, N. O. and B. Fried. 2008. Comparative study of the age classes of two species of Phylophthalmus (Philophthalmidae: Philophthalminae). Comparative Parasitology75 (1): 12-23.
  • SC-93. Dronen, N. O. and C. K. Blend. 2008. Observations on the Parorchis acanthus complex (Philophthalmidae: Parorchiinae) with the description of three new species of ParorchisNicoll, 1907, the replacement of the preoccupied junior homonym Paratrema Dronen & Badley, 1979 with Stenomesotrema nomen novum. Zootaxa 1843; 1-23.
  • SC-94. Dronen, N. O. and C. K. Blend. 2008. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from the white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Threskiornithidae) from the Galveston area of Texas, U.S.A. Invited article for commemorative volume for Dr. Rafael Lamothe Argumedo, Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: 23S-32S.
  • SC-95. Blend, C. K. and N. O. Dronen 2008. Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanusBechstein (Scolopacidae), from the Galveston, Texas area, U.S.A. Invited article for commemorative volume for Dr. Rafael Lamothe Argumedo, Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: 41S-48S.
  • SC-96. Dronen, N. O. 2009. Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae n. sp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae: Diplostominae) from the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus(Phalacrocoracidae) From the Galveston Texas area of the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 76: 34-39.
  • SC-97. Dronen, N. O., S. L. Gardner, and F. A. Jiménez . 2010. Details of the Excretory System of a species of Prohytiasmus (Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from the American Coot, Fulica americana (Rallidae) fromOklahoma, U.S.A. Journal of Parasitology (Submitted – In review).
  • SC-111. Dronen, N. O., S. L. Gardner, and  F. A. Jiménez . 2012. Details of the paranephridial system of a species of Prohytiasmus (Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from the American coot, Fulica americana (Rallidae) from Oklahoma, U.S.A. Journal of Parasitology, 95: 1026-1028.
  • SC-112. Dronen, N. O., Atheer, H. Ali, and M. F. A. A-Amura. 2013. Description of a new species of Uvitellina Witenberg, 1923 (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae)from the white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from Iraq. Comparative Parasitology 80: 9-16.
  • SC-98. Dronen, N. O. 2009. Reevaluation of the species composition of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 (Echinostomatidae: Echinostomatinae), with the description of two new species in the genus and the proposal of Kostadinovitrema guinensis n. gen., n. sp. Systematic Parasitology 74: 168-185.
  • SC-126 NM Serra-Freire, L Ortiz, N Carlos, J Heatley, N Melo, AB Borsoi, 2014  Dermanyssus gallinae em filhotes de arara vermelha (ara macao), ainda no ninho, na reserva nacional tambopata, peru: um risco à saúde. Revista Uniabeu 7 (17), 69-77.
  • SC-131 Dronen, N. O. 2014. Key to the species of Athesmia Loss, 1899 (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae), with the description of a new species from the clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris Boddaert (Guiformes: Rallidae) from Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Zootaxa. 3815, 342–352.
  • SC-132 Dronen, N. O. and V. Tkach. 2014. A new species of Morishitium Wienberg, 1928 from the red-billed blue magpie, Urocissa erythrorhyncha (Boddaert) (Corvidae) from Guizhou Province, People’s Republic of China. Zootaxa, 3835, 273–282.
  • SC-133 Dronen, N. O., T. Craig and K. Gamble. 2014. Detection of cyclocoelids in their molluscan hosts in bird holding facilities. Technical manual being piloted at Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago and will be distributed to more zoos and bird breeding facilities when new edition finished.
  • SC-134 Dronen, N. O. and V. Tkach. 2013. Description of a new species of Uvitellina Witenberg, 1923 (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) from the black-winged stilt, Himantopushimantopus (Charadriiformes: Recurvirostridae) from the Ukraine. Comparative Parasitology, 80, 179–185.
  • SC-135. Dronen, N. O., A. H. Ali, and M. F. Al-Amura. 2013. Description of a new species of Uvitellina Witenberg, 1923 from the white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein) (Chardriiformes: Charadriidae) from Iraq. Comparative Parasitology, 80: 9–16.
  • SC-136 Dronen, N. O., S. L. Gardner, and  F. A. Jiménez. 2012. Details of the paranephridial system of a species of Prohytiasmus (Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae) from the American coot, Fulica americana (Rallidae) from Oklahoma, U.S.A. Journal of Parasitology, 95: 1026–1028.
  • SC-137. D’Amelio, S., S. Cavallero, N. O. Dronen, N. B. Barros and L. Paggi. 2012. Two new species of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry (Nematoda:Anisakidae), Contracaecum fagerholmin. sp. and Contracaecum rudolphii F from the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Systematic Parasitology, 81:1–16.
  • SC-145. Dronen NO, Blend CK.  Updated keys to the genera in the subfamilies of Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902, including a reconsideration of species assignments, species keys and the proposal of a new genus in Szidatitreminae Dronen, 2007. Zootaxa, 4053 (1) 1-100, 2105.
  • SC-150. CL Hodo, DB Whitley, SA Hamer, WV Corapi, K Snowden, JJ Heatley, Histopathologic and Molecular Characterization of Sarcocystis calchasi Encephalitis in White-winged Doves (Zenaida asiatica) and Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto), East-central Texas, USA, 2010–13. J Wildlife Diseases 52 (2), 395. 2016
  • SC-158. Delanski, K.M., S. Nelson, N.O. Dronen, T.M. Craig, J. Pond, and K.C. Gamble. 2015. Detection and Management of Air Sac Trematodes (Szidatitrema Species) in Captive Multispecies Avian Exhibits. Journal of Avian Medicine and surgery. 29: 345–353.
  • SC-159. Dronen, N. O. and C. K. Blend. 2016. Updated keys to the genera in the subfamilies of Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902, including a reconsideration of species assignments, species keys and the proposal of a new genus in Szidatitreminae Dronen, 2007. Zootaxa 4053: 001–100. [Monograph]. Second Schubot publication listed as a book
  • SC-160. Dronen, N. O. 2016. Intraspecific variation in Uvitellina iraquensis n. sp. (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) from the white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein)(Chardriiformes: Charadriidae) from Iraq. Submitted to Zootaxa on 8/07/2016.


Field Studies and Conservation

  • SC-23. Field Research in Hanawi: A Story About Working With the World’ Most Endangered Bird. Phalen DN, Groombridge J. J Avian Med Surg. 17(1):39-42, 2003.
  • SC-34. A comparison of effects of radiotransmitter attachment techniques on captive white-winged doves. Small MF, Rosales R, Baccus JT, Weekerly FW, Phalen DN, Roberson JA. Wildlife Soc Bull, 2004, 32(3):627-637.
  • SC-52 Conservation medicine, diseases and raptors. Saggese, M.D. Hornero 2007; 22:117-130.
  • SC-53. Ecotourism, conservation biology, and volunteer tourism: A mutually beneficial triumvirate. Brightsmith, D. J., A. Stronza, and K. Holle. Biological Conservation. 2008. 141:2832-2842.
  • SC-54. The roles of soil characteristics and toxin adsorption in avian geophagy. Brightsmith, D. J., J. Taylor, and T. D. Phillips. Biotropica. 2008. 40:766-774.
  • SC-55. Rainforest Expeditions and Earthwatch as funding partners for Macaw (Ara spp.) research in southeastern Peru. . Brightsmith, D. J. Neotrop Ornithol. 2008. 19 (supplement):173-181.
  • SC-59. Parrot claylick distribution in South America: do patterns of “where” help answer the question “why”? . Lee, A. T. K., S. Kumar, D. J. Brightsmith, and S. Marsden. Ecography. 2009. 32:1-11.
  • SC-60. Cavity use and reproductive success of nesting macaws in lowland forest of southeast Peru. Renton, K. and D. J. Brightsmith. J Field Ornithol. 2009. 80:1-8.
  • SC-62. Parrots take it with a grain of salt: available sodium content may drive Collpa (“salt lick”) selection in Southeastern Peru. Powell, L. L., G. V. N. Powell, T. U. Powell, & D. J. Brightsmith. Biotropica. 2009. 41: 279-282.
  • SC-77. Growth of Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) chicks in southeastern Peru. Vigo, G, Williams M, and Brightsmith DJ. 2011. Neotrop Ornithol 22:143-153.
  • SC-78. Parrot behavior at a Peruvian clay lick. Brightsmith, DJ. Villalobos E. Wilson J Ornithol 2011. 123: 595-602.
  • SC-100. White Jr, T. H., N. J. Collar, R. J. Moorhouse, V. Sanz, E. D. Stolen, and D. J. Brightsmith. 2012. Psittacine reintroductions: Common denominators of success. Biological Conservation. In press
  • SC-117. Daut EF. The importance of epidemiology and R0 in wildlife rehabilitation. Wildlife rehabilitation bulletin, 30:1-4, 2013.
  • SC-118. Boyd JD, Brightsmith DJ. Error properties of Argos Satellite telemetry locations using least squares and Kalman filtering. (2013) PLoS ONE. 8(5):e63051.
  • SC-123. JJ Heatley, J Cary, KE Russell, G Voelker. Clinicopathologic analysis of Passeriform venous blood reflects transitions in elevation and habitat. (2013) Vet Med Res Rep 4, 1-9.
  • SC-124. J Cornejo, D Richardson, JG Perez, DJ Brightsmith, CJ Bonar, JJ Heatley. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values of the horned guan, Oreophasis derbianus.  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45 (1), 15-22
  • SC-125. JJ Heatley, J Cary, L Kingsley, H Beaufrere, KE Russell, G Voelker, 2015, Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes.Vascular Health and Risk Management 11, 79-91.
  • SC-128. C Ratliff, J Gentry, S Schmalz, K Hartke, KE Russell, M Acierno, 2014  Saving Lives: Critical Blood Analytes for Rehabilitation of Coastal Birds.   International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 2014 (1), 408-416
  • SC-146. Olah G, Butchart SHM, Symes A, Guzma´n IM, Cunningham R, Brightsmith DJ, Heinsohn R. Ecological and socio-economic factors affecting extinction risk in parrots. Biodivers Conserv, DOI 10.1007/s10531-015-1036-z. 2016.
  • SC-148. Daut EF, Lahodny G, Peterson MJ, Ivanek R. Interacting effects of Newcastle Disease transmission and illegal trade on a wild population of White-winged parakeets in Peru: A modeling approach. PlosOne, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0147517. 2016
  • SC-152. Torres-Sovero, C., H. Lloyd, and D. J. Brightsmith. In Press. Uso de collpa y otras observaciones del maracana cabeciazul (Primolius couloni) en el sureste de Perú. Neotropical Ornithology.
  • SC-153. Reed, J. E., R. McCleery, N. J. Silvy, F. E. Smeins, and D. J. Brightsmith. 2014. Monk parakeet nest-site selection of electric utility structures in Texas. Landscaping and Urban Planning. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.04.016
  • SC-154. Lee, A. T. K., D. J. Brightsmith, M. P. N. Vargas, K. Q. Leon, A. J. R. Mejia, L. Y. Q. Huanca, A. K. Lee, and S. J. Marsden. 2014. Diet and geophagy across a western Amazonian parrot assemblage. Biotropica 46:322-330.
  • SC-155. Olah, G., G. Vigo, R. Heinsohn, and D. J. Brightsmith. 2014. Nest site selection and efficacy of artificial nests for breeding success of Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao) in lowland Peru. Journal of Nature Conservation. 22: 176-185.
  • SC-157. Olah, G., G. Vigo, L. Ortiz, L. Rozsa, and D. J. Brightsmith. 2013. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction. Veterinary Parasitology 196:245-249.


Avian Tuberculosis

PDD and Avian Bornavirus

  • SC-119. Hoppes S, Heatley JJ, Guo J, Turner D, Shivaprasad HL, Tizard I. Meloxicam treatment in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) infected with Avian bornavirus. (2013) J Exotic Pet Med. 22:275-279.
  • SC-120. Guo J, Baroch J, Randall A, Tizard I. Complete genome sequence of an Avian bornavirus isolated from a healthy Canadian goose (Branta canadensis). (2013) Genome announcements. 1(5);1-2.
  • SC-121. Guo J, Shivaprasad HL, Rech R, Heatley JJ, Tizard I and Payne S. 2014. Characterization of a new genotype of avian bornavirus from wild ducks. Virology J, 11:197.
  • SC-139. Guo, J., Payne, S., Zhang, S., Turner, D., Tizard, I. and Suchodolski, P. 2014. Avian Bornaviruses: Diagnosis, Isolation, and Genotyping. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 34:I:15I.1:15I.1.1–15I.1.33.
  • SC-142. Musser JM, Heatley JJ, Koinis AV, Suchodolski PF, Guo J, Escandon P, Tizard IR. Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 29;10(7):e0134080. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134080. eCollection 2015.
  • SC-143. Guo J, Tizard I.  The genome sequence of parrot bornavirus 5. Virus Genes. DOI 10.1007/s11262-015-1251-4.  2015
  • SC-149. Tizard I, Ball J, Stoica G, Payne S. The Pathogenesis of Bornaviral Diseases in Mammals. Animal Health Research Reviews, DOI:10.1017/S1466252316000062, 2016

Lead Poisoning

  • SC-66. Survey of lead toxicosis in free-ranging raptors from central Argentina. Saggese, M., A. Quaglia, S.A. Lambertucci, M.S. Bo, J.H. Sarasola, R. Pereyra-Lobos, and J.J. Maceda. 2009. In R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt (eds.). Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans.

The Normal Microbiota

  • SC-69. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots. Xenoulis PG, Gray PL, Brightsmith D, Palculict B, Hoppes S, Steiner JM, Tizard I, Suchodolski JS. Vet Microbiol. 2010; 146(3-4):320-325.
  • SC- 156. Su, H., J. McKelvey, D. Rollins, M. Zhang, D. J. Brightsmith, J. Derr, and S. Zhang. 2014. Cultivable Bacterial Microbiota of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): A New Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistance? PLoS ONE 9:e99826.


  • SC-108. Musser JMB, Heatley JJ, and Phalen DN. Pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus). JAVMA, 242:205-208, 2013


  • SC-110. Daugette KF, Hoppes S, Tizard I, and Brightsmith D. 2012. Positive reinforcement training facilitates the voluntary participation of laboratory macaws with veterinary procedures. J Avian Med Surg. 26:248-254.
  • SC-141. Macaws as Pet and Companion Birds. Woodman, C.J., 2015. In Jordan, R. and Moore, M. A Guide to Macaws as Pet and Aviary Birds. ISBN 978-0-9587102-0-6